Akabane virus

Ak·a·bane vi·rus

(ă-kă-bă-nā),
a virus of the genus Bunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, causing abortion in cattle and congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in bovine fetuses in Israel, Japan, and Australia; it is transmitted by mosquitoes.

Akabane virus

An arbovirus first identified in the Akabane district in Japan, which passes through the placenta of early embryos in cattle and causes congenital neurologic problems in calves.

Vector
Haematophagous midges (Culicoides brevitarsus).

Akabane virus

a bunyavirus transmitted by insects, including Culicoides brevitarsis, and the cause of arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly, recognized in newborn calves and lambs following in utero infection in the early months of gestation.

Akabane virus disease
the causative bunyavirus is carried by insects, e.g. Culicoides brevitarsis, and affects only young fetuses in pregnant ruminants. At birth the calves are either without intelligence (imbecile calves) or have joint fixation, in flexion or extension, and create a dystocia (curly calves). See also aino virus disease, hydranencephaly. Called also enzootic bovine arthrogryposis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Genetic diversity and reassortments among Akabane virus field isolates.
Similar to the situation with Akabane virus infection (8), the clinical picture shown by in utero SBV-infected newborn calves is likely to depend largely on the age of the fetus at the time of infection.
Tsutsui and colleagues (9) showed that dairy calves lost their maternally derived antibodies against Akabane virus at -4 months of age, and Grimstad and colleagues (10) showed that young white-tailed deer lost their maternally derived antibodies against Jamestown Canyon virus at 5-6 months of age.
Duration of maternally derived antibodies against Akabane virus in calves: survival analysis.
In contrast, viremia was detected in most cows that were artificially inseminated and simultaneously inoculated in the uterus with cell culture--passaged Akabane virus, a teratogenic orthobunyavirus closely related to SBV (9).
The Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) includes Shamonda virus, Akabane virus, Sathuperi virus, and Aino virus.
No reaction was detected in SBV-negative (as determined by qRT-PCR) goats, sheep, and calves; in ruminants with various non--SBV-associated nervous system lesions; or in the brain of a mouse that was experimentally infected with Akabane virus.
Similar to Akabane virus (AKAV), another Simbu serogroup virus, SBV can cause fatal congenital defects by infection of fetuses during a susceptible stage in pregnancy (2).
This finding closely fits with the -30% reported for Akabane virus, a close phylogenetic relative of Schmallenberg virus (7).
It is a RNA virus and shows 97% identity with Shamonda virus (SFIAV) (small gene segment), 71% identity with Aino virus (medium gene segment), and 69% identity with Akabane virus (AKAV) (large gene segment) (4).
When calves from experimentally infected dams are infected with the closest phylogenetic relative to SBV, Akabane virus, porencephaly develops during gestational days 62-96 (5).
AB542971; 71% identity) (3), and an Akabane virus found in cattle in Japan (L segment; accession no.