airway resistance


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to airway resistance: Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome

resistance

 [re-zis´tans]
1. opposition, or counteracting force, as opposition of a conductor to passage of electricity or other energy or substance.
2. the natural ability of a normal organism to remain unaffected by noxious agents in its environment; see also immunity.
3. in psychology or psychiatry, conscious or unconscious defenses against change, preventing repressed material from coming into awareness; they can take such forms as forgetfulness, evasions, embarrassment, mental blocks, denial, anger, superficial talk, intellectualization, or intensification of symptoms. It occurs because the blocked association or understanding would be too threatening to face at this point in the therapy; identification of what point the resistance comes at can be an important indicator of the patient's unconscious patterns.
airway resistance the opposition of the tissues of the air passages to air flow: the mouth-to-alveoli pressure difference divided by the rate of air flow. Symbol RA or RAW.
androgen resistance resistance of target organs to the action of androgens, resulting in any of a spectrum of defects from a normal male phenotype in which men have normal genitalia but infertility to complete androgen resistance in which the individual has a female phenotype. Complete androgen resistance is an extreme form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which the individual is phenotypically female but is of XY chromosomal sex; there may be rudimentary uterus and tubes, but the gonads are typically testes, which may be abdominal or inguinal in position. Called also testicular feminization and testicular feminization syndrome. Incomplete androgen resistance is any of various forms less than the complete type, manifested by a male phenotype with various degrees of ambiguous genitalia such as hypospadias and a small vaginal pouch, a hooded phallus, or a bifid scrotum that may or may not contain gonads.
drug resistance the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of a drug that are lethal to most members of its species.
insulin resistance see insulin resistance.
multidrug resistance (multiple drug resistance) a phenomenon seen in some malignant cell lines: cells that have developed natural resistance to a single cytotoxic compound are also resistant to structurally unrelated chemotherapy agents. Called also cross-resistance.
peripheral resistance resistance to the passage of blood through the small blood vessels, especially the arterioles.
pulmonary vascular resistance the vascular resistance of the pulmonary circulation; the difference between the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and the left atrial filling pressure divided by the cardiac output. Called also total pulmonary vascular resistance.
total peripheral resistance the vascular resistance of the systemic circulation: the difference between the mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure divided by the cardiac output.
total pulmonary resistance (total pulmonary vascular resistance) pulmonary vascular resistance.
vascular resistance the opposition to blood flow in a vascular bed; the pressure drop across the bed divided by the blood flow, conventionally expressed in peripheral resistance units. Symbol R or R.

air·way re·sis·tance

in physiology, the resistance to the flow of gases during ventilation resulting from obstruction or turbulent flow in the upper and lower airways; to be differentiated during inhalation from resistance to inflation resulting from decreases in pulmonary or thoracic compliance.

airway resistance

A measure of the resistance (in cm H2O) to the flow (in L/min of air in upper airways, which results from natural recoil–resiliency of anatomic structures (oro- and nasopharynx, larynx, and nonrespiratory portions of the lungs, including the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles). Airway resistance testing evaluates airway responsiveness, and includes provocation testing (e.g., bronchial challenge), evaluation of sites of airflow resistance or closures, and characterisation of the type of lung disease. Airway resistance is increased, either focally or globally, in asthma, COPD, and in smokers.

airway resistance

Lung physiology A measure of the resistance–in cm H2O to the flow–in L/min of air in upper airways, the result of natural recoil–resiliency of anatomic structures–oro- and nasopharynx, larynx, and nonrespiratory portions of the lungs–trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles through which air passes on the way to the alveoli; assessment of AR evaluates airway responsiveness, provocation testing–eg bronchial challenge, evaluation of sites of airflow resistance or closures, and characterization of the type of lung disease; airway resistance is ↑, either focally or globally in asthma, COPD, and smokers. See Airway responsiveness, Asthma, COPD.

air·way re·sis·tance

(ār'wā rĕ-zis'tăns)
physiology Resistance to flow of gases during ventilation due to obstruction or turbulent flow in the upper and lower airways; to be differentiated during inhalation from resistance to inflation due to decreases in pulmonary or thoracic compliance.

air·way re·sis·tance

(ār'wā rĕ-zis'tăns)
physiology Impendance to flow of gases during ventilation due to obstruction or turbulent flow in the upper and lower airways; to be differentiated during inhalation from resistance to inflation due to decreases in pulmonary or thoracic compliance.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, in most cases of OSA, there is no identifiable neuromuscular dysfunction, and the problem relates primarily to the increase in upper airway resistance. [39]
Parameter Mean SD Range VC (%) 70 23.3 22.2-128.6 [FEV.sub.1] (%) 49.4 20.8 16.1-100.4 [FEV.sub.1]%VC 53.4 13 32.7-90.9 RV (%) 210.9 81.9 35.3-405.7 TLC (%) 125 31.6 54.4-205 RV%TLC 65 14.8 16.4-87.6 [sR.sub.tot] (%) 337.4 241 47.8-1054.8 VC: vital capacity; [FEV.sub.1]: forced expiratory volume in one second; [FEV.sub.1]%VC: Tiffeneau index; RV: residual volume; TLC: total lung capacity; [sR.sub.tot]: specific total airway resistance. Table 3: Quantified CT parameters.
As a result of our study, we found that small airway resistance was present in children who were born late preterm when compared with children born at term.
We observed significantly lower compliance and higher elastance on D21 in mice with prenatal exposure compared with controls, but there was no significant difference in airway resistance. Tomioka et al.
However, this could also be due to higher levels of airway resistance in children with asthma at the time of the prebaseline measurements.
The decrease in size of opening of nares, nasal passage way and larynx by half would increase the airway resistance in brachycephalic breed 16 times that of non brachycephalic breed (Loato and Hedlund, 2012).
In his study, van de Graaff measured the upper airway resistance (UAR) in tracheotomized dogs under two test conditions: 1) in the presence of and 2) in the absence of upper airway muscle activity.
Abnormalities of the nose, such as septal deviation, nasal polyps, intranasal benign tumors, inferior turbinate hypertrophy, rhinitis, and even malignancies, may cause or aggravate the symptoms of OSA due to severe nasal obstruction and elevated nasal airway resistance. [sup][17] Therefore, nasal surgery with the goals of altering structural abnormalities and improving nasal patent, such as septoplasty, submucous resection, and outfracturing of the inferior turbinates and functional endoscopic sinus surgery may play a positive role in the treatment and management of OSA.
It has been reported that there was a lowering in the position of the hyoid bone over time in asymptomatic male controls and after mandibular set-back surgery.23 The finding suggested that it could be a physiologic phenomenon related to the increase of airway resistance or airway length.
Reduces airway resistance and helps pulmonary ventilation.
This subset of patients might meet criteria for upper airway resistance syndrome, which was first described in 1993 and is characterized by repetitive increases in resistance to airflow, increased respiratory effort, absence of oxygen desaturation, brief sleep state changes or arousals, and daytime somnolence.

Full browser ?