Some recent studies seem to indicate that MS may take a more severe course in African-Americans
. The UCSF study found that "opticospinal" MS, in which symptoms affect the optic nerve and spinal cord, and attacks of "acute transverse myelitis," in which the spinal cord stops transmitting nerve impulses, resulting in paralysis, were seen more frequently in African-Americans
than in others.
"It is a challenge if that's the approach you use," says Williams, who admits that though internationalization is poised to directly help African-American
entrepreneurs, the same isn't certain for poor people.
The exploration of this issue began with an assumed relationship between the differential life expectancy of African-American
and white males in the United States, and the distribution of Social Security benefits in retirement.
The Marine Corps was an all-white military service when it was reestablished in 1798 and stayed that way until June 1, 1942, when Navy Secretary Frank Knox, bowing to the will of President Franklin Roosevelt, ordered that 1,000 African-Americans
be enlisted in the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard each month.
It heralded a host of hard-fought advances for African-Americans
. Change came quickly after 1954, as a series of protests, conflicts and martyrs spurred advances in law (see box p6).
Given the current high rates of heart disease and hypertension among African-Americans
, it certainly seems reasonable to turn to vegetarian diets as one way of reducing risk and of possibly increasing life expectancy.
I'm not saying the experience of African-Americans
was the same as gays and lesbians, though there are similarities."
Wedding Readings (E P Dutton, January 1998, ASIN 0-525-94403-6), edited by Tamara Nikuradse, is filled with heartfelt passages perfect for any wedding ceremony.
Since many people in African-American
communities have historically been in denial about the fact that there are black gays; AIDS came to be viewed by some as a disease "only white, gay, men got" and blacks "got it" when they associated too closely with white gays.
Studies published in 1990 in the JofA by Bert Mitchell, the chairman and founder of Mitchell & Titus, LLP, the largest minority-controlled firm in the United States, identified only 150 African-Americans
among 100,000 (total population) CPAs in 1969.
Jeffrey Bolster's personal seafaring experience lends vibrance to his gorgeously detailed account Black Jacks: African-American
Seamen in the Age of Sail.
Interestingly, many baseball players --both black and white--came to the defense of Campanis with numerous examples of how his support helped African-Americans
succeed in this sport.