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Pharmacologic treatment should begin as soon as possible and is based on lab results and patient symptoms. suramin, pentamidine isethionate, and melarsoprol are the most common medications used. Pentamidine isethionate or suramin may be injected to remove parasites from the blood or lymph nodes before onset of disease, but the most effective preventive measure is eradication of the tsetse fly.
The acute form often attacks children. Early symptoms include swelling of the eyelids and the development of a hard, red, painful nodule on the skin. Enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen occurs, along with inflammation of the heart muscle, psychic changes, and general debility. In adults the chronic form often resembles heart disease.
The control strategy suggested by the World Health Organization is to interrupt transmission of the disease by the vectors and to systematically screen blood donors. Preventive measures, such as the wearing of protective clothing and the use of insecticides, are of primary importance. Medication with antiprotozoal agents is usually effective when administered during the acute stage of infection.
African TrypanosomiasisAn infestation which cripples livestock and affects humans in sub-Saharan Africa; ±50 million Africans are at risk for this haematogenous parasitaemia.
Vector Tsetse fly.
• Rhodesian trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is more common in East Africa.
• Gambian trypanosomiasis, caused by T brucei gambiense, which is more common in West Africa.
The trypanosome evades the host’s immune system by frequently changing the proteins on its outer surface, proteins by which the immune system identifies intruders.
Clinical findings Acute febrile syndrome, chills, headache, vomiting, pain in extremities, lymphadenopathy, anaemia, depression, fatigue, coma rapidly progressing to death; chronic disease with CNS depression. Sleeping sickness is more common in the West African form and eventually causes death if untreated.
Management Symptomatic (airway management, fever, malaise).
• East African trypanosomiasis Haematolymphatic stage: suramin; neurologic stage: melarsoprol.
• West African trypanosomiasis Haematolymphatic stage: pentamidine or suramin; neurologic stage: melarsoprol or eflornithine.
Af·ri·can try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis(af'ri-kăn trī-pan'ō-sŏ-mī'ă-sis)
Patient discussion about African trypanosomiasis
Q. Need Help.I could not enjoy the blessings of nature. I have sleep problem which affects me to a great extent. Hi friends, I need your help. I could not enjoy the blessings of nature. I have sleep problem which affects me to a great extent. Is there any remedy that I can try other than sleeping pills?
? Cut down on caffeine.
? Stop smoking or chewing tobacco.
? Use alcohol cautiously
? Avoid a sedentary life
? Improve your sleep surroundings.
? Keep a regular schedule
? Keep a sleep diary
? Use strategic naps
If you try all the above suggestions and still have sleep problem, talk to your health-care provider.