African trypanosomiasis


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

trypanosomiasis

 [tri-pan″o-so-mi´ah-sis]
infection with trypanosomes.
African trypanosomiasis an often fatal disease of Africa caused by Trypanosoma gambiense or T. rhodesiense and involving the central nervous system. The parasites are transmitted to human beings from cattle or other animals by the bite of the tsetse fly. Usually the first symptom is inflammation at the site of the bite, appearing within 48 hours. Within several weeks the parasites invade the blood and lymph, and eventually they attack the central nervous system. Characteristic symptoms include intermittent fever, rapid heartbeat, and enlargement of the lymph nodes and spleen. In the advanced stage of the disease there are personality changes, apathy, sleepiness, disturbances of speech and gait, and severe emaciation.



Pharmacologic treatment should begin as soon as possible and is based on lab results and patient symptoms. suramin, pentamidine isethionate, and melarsoprol are the most common medications used. Pentamidine isethionate or suramin may be injected to remove parasites from the blood or lymph nodes before onset of disease, but the most effective preventive measure is eradication of the tsetse fly.
American trypanosomiasis (South American trypanosomiasis) a form found from the southern United States south into South America, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi; it is transmitted to humans from wild animals by means of the feces of a blood-sucking bug. The parasites multiply around the points of entry before entering the blood and eventually attacking the heart, brain, and other tissues. Called also Chagas' disease.



The acute form often attacks children. Early symptoms include swelling of the eyelids and the development of a hard, red, painful nodule on the skin. Enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen occurs, along with inflammation of the heart muscle, psychic changes, and general debility. In adults the chronic form often resembles heart disease.

The control strategy suggested by the World Health Organization is to interrupt transmission of the disease by the vectors and to systematically screen blood donors. Preventive measures, such as the wearing of protective clothing and the use of insecticides, are of primary importance. Medication with antiprotozoal agents is usually effective when administered during the acute stage of infection.

Af·ri·can try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

a serious endemic disease in tropic Africa, of two types: Gambian or West African trypanosomiasis and Rhodesian or East African trypanosomiasis.

African trypanosomiasis

African Trypanosomiasis

An infestation which cripples livestock and affects humans in sub-Saharan Africa; ±50 million Africans are at risk for this haematogenous parasitaemia.
Vector Tsetse fly.
Types
• Rhodesian trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is more common in East Africa.
• Gambian trypanosomiasis, caused by T brucei gambiense, which is more common in West Africa.
The trypanosome evades the host’s immune system by frequently changing the proteins on its outer surface, proteins by which the immune system identifies intruders.
Clinical findings Acute febrile syndrome, chills, headache, vomiting, pain in extremities, lymphadenopathy, anaemia, depression, fatigue, coma rapidly progressing to death; chronic disease with CNS depression. Sleeping sickness is more common in the West African form and eventually causes death if untreated.
Management Symptomatic (airway management, fever, malaise).
• East African trypanosomiasis Haematolymphatic stage: suramin; neurologic stage: melarsoprol.  
• West African trypanosomiasis  Haematolymphatic stage: pentamidine or suramin; neurologic stage: melarsoprol or eflornithine.

Af·ri·can try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

(af'ri-kăn trī-pan'ō-sŏ-mī'ă-sis)
A serious endemic disease in tropic Africa, of two types: Gambian or West African trypanosomiasis and Rhodesian or East African trypanosomiasis.

Patient discussion about African trypanosomiasis

Q. Need Help.I could not enjoy the blessings of nature. I have sleep problem which affects me to a great extent. Hi friends, I need your help. I could not enjoy the blessings of nature. I have sleep problem which affects me to a great extent. Is there any remedy that I can try other than sleeping pills?

A. Many things can interfere with sleep ranging from anxiety to an unusual work schedule. But people who have difficulty in sleeping often discover that their daily routine holds the key to night-time woes.

? Cut down on caffeine.
? Stop smoking or chewing tobacco.
? Use alcohol cautiously
? Avoid a sedentary life
? Improve your sleep surroundings.
? Keep a regular schedule
? Keep a sleep diary
? Use strategic naps

If you try all the above suggestions and still have sleep problem, talk to your health-care provider.

More discussions about African trypanosomiasis
References in periodicals archive ?
Urban transmission of human African trypanosomiasis, Gabon.
[4] World Health Organization et al., Control and Surveillance of Human African Trypanosomiasis: Report of a WHO Expert Committee, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
Holmes, "First WHO meeting of stakeholders on elimination of Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis," PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol.
* The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of African Trypanosomiasis
Suppressor macrophages in African trypanosomiasis inhibit T cell proliferative responses by nitric oxide and prostaglandins.
The African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, is a blood-borne unicellular parasitic protozoan and the etiological agent of both human and animal African Trypanosomiasis [24].
[1] WHO, "African Trypanosomiasis," World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland, Fact Sheet No.
Suramin was discovered in 1921 and used in the first stage treatment and prophylaxis of African trypanosomiasis. It is also used to treat river blindness (onchocerciasis) (14,15).
African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is caused by Trypanosoma brucei, a hemoflagellate protozoan parasite, transmitted to human by an insect vector Tsetse fly (Glossina spp) found in some parts of rural Africa.
(2) Five different approaches1 are proposed to tackle NDTs, intensive case management by early diagnosis and treatment is the approach used in leprosy but it is also the approach used for Buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis and yaws.
In African trypanosomiasis, cardiac manifestations are more prominent in Trypanosomiasis rhodesiense infection (Rhodesian sleeping sickness) than in T.

Full browser ?