African sleeping sickness


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African sleeping sickness

 

Gam·bi·an try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

a chronic disease of humans caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in northern and sub-Saharan Africa from Senegal east to Sudan and Uganda; characterized by splenomegaly, drowsiness, an uncontrollable urge to sleep, and the development of psychotic changes; basal ganglia and cerebellar involvement commonly lead to chorea and athetosis; the terminal phase of the disease is characterized by wasting, anorexia, and emaciation that gradually leads to coma and death, usually from intercurrent infection.

African sleeping sickness

African Trypanosomiasis

An infestation which cripples livestock and affects humans in sub-Saharan Africa; ±50 million Africans are at risk for this haematogenous parasitaemia.
Vector Tsetse fly.
Types
• Rhodesian trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is more common in East Africa.
• Gambian trypanosomiasis, caused by T brucei gambiense, which is more common in West Africa.
The trypanosome evades the host’s immune system by frequently changing the proteins on its outer surface, proteins by which the immune system identifies intruders.
Clinical findings Acute febrile syndrome, chills, headache, vomiting, pain in extremities, lymphadenopathy, anaemia, depression, fatigue, coma rapidly progressing to death; chronic disease with CNS depression. Sleeping sickness is more common in the West African form and eventually causes death if untreated.
Management Symptomatic (airway management, fever, malaise).
• East African trypanosomiasis Haematolymphatic stage: suramin; neurologic stage: melarsoprol.  
• West African trypanosomiasis  Haematolymphatic stage: pentamidine or suramin; neurologic stage: melarsoprol or eflornithine.

Gam·bi·an try·pa·no·so·mi·a·sis

(gam'bē-ăn trī-pan'ō-sō-mī'ă-sis)
A chronic disease of humans caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Africa; characterized by splenomegaly, drowsiness, an uncontrollable urge to sleep, and the development of psychotic changes; basal ganglia and cerebellar involvement commonly lead to chorea and athetosis; the terminal phase of the disease is characterized by wasting, anorexia, and emaciation that gradually lead to coma and death, usually from intercurrent infection.
Synonym(s): chronic trypanosomiasis.

Rho·de·sian try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

(rō-dē'zhŭn trī-pan'ō-sŏ-mī'ă-sis)
A disease of humans caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in East Africa; it is clinically similar to Gambian trypanosomiasis but of shorter duration and more acute in form; patients suffer repeated episodes of pyrexia, become anemic, and commonly die from cardiac failure.
Synonym(s): acute African sleeping sickness, acute trypanosomiasis.

African sleeping sickness

See TRYPANOSOMIASIS.

African sleeping sickness

a fatal infection of the nervous and lymphatic systems that is endemic in certain parts of Africa and is caused by a flagellate protozoan called Trypanosoma, particularly T. brucei gambiense (West Africa) and T. bruceirhodesiense (East Africa). The vector of the flagellate is the tsetse fly Glossina, which also feeds on cattle, the latter acting as a reservoir for the parasite. African sleeping sickness is not to be confused with ENCEPHALITIS which is caused by a virus.

Patient discussion about African sleeping sickness

Q. Need Help.I could not enjoy the blessings of nature. I have sleep problem which affects me to a great extent. Hi friends, I need your help. I could not enjoy the blessings of nature. I have sleep problem which affects me to a great extent. Is there any remedy that I can try other than sleeping pills?

A. Many things can interfere with sleep ranging from anxiety to an unusual work schedule. But people who have difficulty in sleeping often discover that their daily routine holds the key to night-time woes.

? Cut down on caffeine.
? Stop smoking or chewing tobacco.
? Use alcohol cautiously
? Avoid a sedentary life
? Improve your sleep surroundings.
? Keep a regular schedule
? Keep a sleep diary
? Use strategic naps

If you try all the above suggestions and still have sleep problem, talk to your health-care provider.

More discussions about African sleeping sickness
References in periodicals archive ?
Scientists have deciphered the DNA of the parasites responsible for three deadly diseases: African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, and leishmaniasis.
Joanna Cox and Shuhong Luo demonstrated that a [Ca.sup.2+]-ATPase is localized to acidocalcisomes and the plasma membrane of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiologic agent of African sleeping sickness, and is essential for cell growth, as demonstrated by RNA interference experiments.
In their quest to find a weakness in the single-celled parasite that causes African sleeping sickness, researchers have identified an enzyme that appears indispensable to the microbe's survival.
African sleeping sickness in tourists returning from Tanzania: the first 2 Italian cases from a small outbreak among European travelers.
And the agency's reaction to those applications will give antisense companies their best clue yet about the regulatory hurdles they can expect as they seek approval for oligos aimed at a variety of diseases, including influenza, cervical cancer and African sleeping sickness.
Piet Borst and his colleagues at the Netherlands Cancer Institute in Amsterdam report similar success in using the neomycin gene to replace a targeted gene in Trypanosoma brucei, which causes African sleeping sickness.
1 NATURE, Vladimir Volloch and his colleagues at the Boston Biomedical Research Institute describe their work with the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, which causes African sleeping sickness. Their findings seem to contradict Simpson's.
French researcher Claude Helene, of the National Institute for Health and Medical Research in Paris, has used antisense DNA to interrupt the life cycle of the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, which causes African sleeping sickness.
Scientists developed suramin in the 1920s as a treatment for African sleeping sickness. But researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Bethesda, Md., report it shrank tumors by more than 50 percent in four of eight patients with advanced prostate cancer unresponsive to normal therapy.
We were bitten numerous times by tsetse flies as we worked on the car, hoping that the biting flies weren't carrying African sleeping sicknesses. The tenacious tsetse flies do not respond to repellent.

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