The most well-known of these are Bartonella species (henselae, quintana, bacilliformis), although some Afipia
species (eg, A.
By 1992 the name Afipia
felis was proclaimed to be the agent causing CSD (Afipia
is an acronym for the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and felis refers to the vector of this infection).
Serologic response to Bartonella and Afipia
antigens in patients with cat scratch disease.
In the case of cat-scratch disease, the exact cause - a bacterium called Afipia
felis - was not discovered until 1983, although the disease had been recognized for nearly 100 years.
Isolation of new fastidious alpha Proteobacteria and Afipia
felis from hospital water supplies by direct plating and amoebal co-culture procedures.
Bartonella and Afipia
species emphasizing Bartonella henselae.
micdadei, and other AAMs (15,18), including Parachlamydia acanthamoeba (strain BN 9 and "Hall's coccus"), Afipia
Etiology of cat scratch disease: comparison of polymerase chain reaction detection of Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) and Afipia
felis DNA with serology and skin tests.
thiooxydans, Mesorhizobium amorphae, Azorhizobium caulinodans, Afipia
In addition, use of amoebal coculture procedures (10) allows recovery of some fastidious gram-negative bacteria, such as the Legionella-like amoebal pathogens (11,12), Candidatus Odyssella thessalonicensis (13), Sacrob ium lyticum (14), several Afipia
species (15), and Chlamydia-like endosymbionts (16,17).
Conversely, in the absence of serologic evidence, the role of a cultured organism should be interpreted cautiously, as shown by the example of Afipia
fells, which was first thought to be the cause of cat-scratch disease, but was finally identified as a water contaminant (12,43).
We tested serum specimens from three groups of patients with pneumonia by indirect immunofluorescence against Legionella-like amoebal pathogens (LLAPs) 1-7, 9, 10, 12, 13; Parachlamydia acanthamoeba strains BN 9 and Hall's coccus; and Afipia