Heart rate (A), total aerobic metabolism
(B), carbohydrate oxidation (C) and fat oxidation (D) prior to lunch on the three test days; The control day (CON), the day with exercise in the fasted state (ExBr) and the day with exercise in the postprandial state (BrEx).
However, at exercise intensity high enough that glucose metabolism must be coupled with glycolysis to produce enough ATP for the needed exercise, the carbon dioxide produced from glycolysis must be added to the carbon dioxide produced from aerobic metabolism
. Aerobically produced carbon dioxide plus anaerobically produced carbon dioxide yields greater carbon dioxide than the amount of oxygen brought in for aerobic metabolism
(American College of Sports Medicine, 2006).
In contrast, B lymphocytes exhibited increases in both glucose and glutamine consumption, although only glutamine aerobic metabolism
was increased .
Even weight lifters, sprinters, and other power athletes can benefit from some endurance training as their recovery from anaerobic events requires aerobic metabolism
to burn off the accumulated lactic acid.
Most nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria carry out photosynthesis during the day and nitrogen fixation at night, but UCYN-A can fix nitrogen all day long.The new paper extends the list of UCYN-A's missing metabolic pathways to include, among other things, a process central to aerobic metabolism
known as the TCA cycle or Krebs cycle.
But the strict definition of AT is that it is the point at which the rate of anaerobic metabolism, including glycolysis, begins to go significantly faster than aerobic metabolism
including the trans carboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and its associated electron transport chain.
Oxygen availability enables pyruvate to enter the mitochondria where it generates 18 times as much energy (net 36 ATP) as glycolysis alone does through aerobic metabolism
. This fact exemplifies the critical importance of proper oxygenation of brain tissue (Zauner, Daugherty, Bullock, & Warner, 2002).
This was taken to represent the point at which oxygen supply to the muscle could not meet the demand placed on aerobic metabolism
, forcing a switch to anaerobic metabolism to sustain muscle contractions.
Endurance depends on type I fibers and efficient aerobic metabolism
. Strength relies on the presence of larger, more numerous type II fibers.
In this context the (almost) anaerobic metabolism at blastula stage embryo could reflect the existence of multi-cellular organisms in the deep anoxic Earth while the transition to aerobic metabolism
at gastrula could be related to the evolution towards tridermic organisms around 2 billion years ago.
The remarkable transition to aerobic metabolism
in gastrula-stage embryos potentially reflects evolution toward tridermic organisms by 2 billion years ago.
in shrimp responds considerably when shrimp are injected with the bacterium Vibrio campbellii.