umbilical hernia

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hernia

 [her´ne-ah]
the abnormal protrusion of part of an organ or tissue through the structures normally containing it. adj., adj her´nial. A weak spot or other abnormal opening in a body wall permits part of the organ to bulge through. A hernia may develop in various parts of the body, most commonly in the region of the abdomen (abdominal hernia), and may be either acquired or congenital. An old popular term for hernia is rupture, but this term is misleading because it suggests tearing and nothing is torn in a hernia. Although various supports and trusses can be tried in an effort to contain the hernia, the best treatment for this condition is herniorrhaphy, surgical repair of the weakness in the muscle wall through which the hernia protrudes.
Bochdalek's hernia congenital posterolateral diaphragmatic hernia, with extrusion of bowel and other abdominal viscera into the thorax; due to failure of closure of the pleuroperitoneal hiatus.
cerebral hernia (hernia ce´rebri) protrusion of brain substance through a defect in the skull.
crural hernia femoral hernia.
diaphragmatic hernia see diaphragmatic hernia.
fat hernia hernial protrusion of peritoneal fat through the abdominal wall.
femoral hernia protrusion of a loop of intestine into the femoral canal, a tubular passageway that carries nerves and blood vessels to the thigh; this type occurs more often in women than in men. Called also crural hernia and femorocele.
hiatal hernia (hiatus hernia) protrusion of a structure, often a portion of the stomach, through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm; see diaphragmatic hernia.
Holthouse's hernia an inguinal hernia that has turned outward into the groin.
incarcerated hernia a hernia so occluded that it cannot be returned by manipulation; it may or may not become strangulated. Called also irreducible hernia.
incisional hernia hernia after operation at the site of the surgical incision, owing to improper healing or to excessive strain on the healing tissue; such strain may be caused by excessive muscular effort, such as that involved in lifting or severe coughing, or by obesity, which creates additional pressure on the weakened area.
inguinal hernia hernia occurring in the groin, or inguen, where the abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs. It is often the result of increased pressure within the abdomen, whether due to lifting, coughing, straining, or accident. Inguinal hernia accounts for about 75 per cent of all hernias.

A sac formed from the peritoneum and containing a portion of the intestine or omentum, or both, pushes either directly outward through the weakest point in the abdominal wall (direct hernia) or downward at an angle into the inguinal canal (indirect hernia). Indirect inguinal hernia (the common form) occurs more often in males because it follows the tract that develops when the testes descend into the scrotum before birth, and the hernia itself may descend into the scrotum. In the female, the hernia follows the course of the round ligament of the uterus.

Inguinal hernia begins usually as a small breakthrough. It may be hardly noticeable, appearing as a soft lump under the skin, no larger than a marble, and there may be little pain. As time passes, the pressure of the contents of the abdomen against the weak abdominal wall may increase the size of the opening and, accordingly, the size of the lump formed by the hernia. In the early stages, an inguinal hernia is usually reducible—it can be pushed gently back into its normal place. Inguinal hernia usually requires herniorrhaphy.
intra-abdominal hernia (intraperitoneal hernia) a congenital anomaly of intestinal positioning, occurring within the abdomen, in which a portion of bowel protrudes through a defect in the peritoneum or, as a result of abnormal rotation of the intestine during embryonic development, becomes trapped in a sac of peritoneum.
irreducible hernia incarcerated hernia.
mesocolic hernia an intra-abdominal hernia in which the small intestine rotates incompletely during development and becomes trapped within the mesentery of the colon.
Morgagni's hernia congenital retrosternal diaphragmatic hernia, with extrusion of tissue into the thorax through the foramen of Morgagni.
paraesophageal hernia hiatal hernia in which part or almost all of the stomach protrudes through the hiatus into the thorax to the left of the esophagus, with the gastroesophageal junction remaining in place.
Paraesophageal hernia. From Dorland's, 2000.
posterior vaginal hernia downward protrusion of the pouch of Douglas, with its intestinal contents, between the posterior vaginal wall and the rectum; called also enterocele. See illustration.
Posterior vaginal hernia. From McKinney et al., 2000.
reducible hernia one that can be returned by manipulation.
Richter's hernia incarcerated or strangulated hernia in which only a portion of the circumference of the bowel wall is involved.
rolling hernia paraesophageal hernia.
scrotal hernia an inguinal hernia that has passed into the scrotum.
sliding hernia hernia of the cecum (on the right) or the sigmoid colon (on the left) in which the wall of the viscus forms a portion of the hernial sac, the remainder of the sac being formed by the parietal peritoneum.
sliding hiatal hernia the most common type of diaphragmatic hernia; a hiatal hernia in which the upper stomach and the cardioesophageal junction protrude upward into the posterior mediastinum. The protrusion, which may be fixed or intermittent, is partially covered by a peritoneal sac.
Sliding hiatal hernia. From Dorland's, 2000.
slip hernia (slipped hernia) sliding hernia.
strangulated hernia one that is tightly constricted. As any hernia progresses and bulges out through the weak point in its containing wall, the opening in the wall tends to close behind it, forming a narrow neck. If the neck becomes pinched tight enough to cut off the blood supply, the hernia will quickly swell and become strangulated. This is a very dangerous condition that can appear suddenly and requires immediate surgical attention. Unless the blood supply is restored promptly, gangrene can set in and may cause death. If a hernia suddenly grows larger, becomes tense, and will not go back into place, and there is pain and nausea, it is strangulated. Occasionally, especially in the elderly, hernia strangulation may occur without pain or tenderness.
umbilical hernia see umbilical hernia.
vaginal hernia hernia into the vagina; called also colpocele.

umbilical

 [um-bil´ĭ-kal]
pertaining to the umbilicus.
umbilical cord the structure that connects the fetus and placenta; it is the lifeline of the fetus in the uterus throughout pregnancy. About 2 weeks after conception, the umbilical cord and the placenta are sufficiently developed to begin their functions. Through two arteries and a vein in the cord, nourishment and oxygen pass from the blood vessels in the placenta to the fetus, and waste products pass from the fetus to the placenta. Soon after birth, the umbilical cord is clamped or tied and then cut. The part that is attached to the placenta, still in the uterus, is expelled with the placenta. The stump that remains attached to the baby's abdomen is about 2 inches (5 cm) long. After a few days it falls off naturally.
Clamping the umbilical cord.
Umbilical cord with umbilical vein and umbilical arteries. From McKinney, 2000.
umbilical hernia protrusion of abdominal contents through the abdominal wall at the umbilicus, the defect in the abdominal wall and protruding intestine being covered with skin and subcutaneous tissue. Called also exomphalos and exumbilication.



During the growth of the fetus, the intestines grow more rapidly than the abdominal cavity. For a period, a portion of the intestines of the unborn child usually lies outside the abdomen in a sac within the umbilical cord. Normally, the intestines return to the abdomen, and the defect is closed by the time of birth. Occasionally the abdominal wall does not close solidly, and umbilical hernia results. This defect is more likely to be seen in premature infants and in girls rather than boys. It usually closes by itself. Coughing, crying, and straining temporarily cause the sac to enlarge, but the hernia never bursts and digestion is not affected. If the defect in the abdominal wall has not repaired itself by the time the child is 2 years old, surgery to correct the condition (herniorrhaphy) can then be performed.

Umbilical hernia should be distinguished from omphalocele, in which the intestines protrude directly into the umbilical cord and are covered only by a thin membrane. Omphalocele is a surgical emergency that must be treated immediately after birth.

um·bil·i·cal her·ni·a

a hernia in which bowel or omentum protrudes through the abdominal wall under the skin at the umbilicus.
See also: omphalocele.
Synonym(s): exomphalos (2) , exumbilication (2)

umbilical hernia

n.
A hernia in which part of the intestine protrudes through the abdominal wall under the skin in the region of the navel.

umbilical hernia

a soft, skin-covered protrusion of intestine and omentum through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus. It usually closes spontaneously within 1 to 2 years, although large hernias may require surgical closure.
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Umbilical hernia

umbilical hernia

Pediatric surgery A painless protrusion of intraabdominal structure(s) through the umbilical ring–through which umbilical blood vessels pass in a developing fetus–due to incomplete closure. See Hernia.

um·bil·i·cal her·ni·a

(ŭm-bil'i-kăl hĕr'nē-ă)
A hernia in which intestine or omentum protrudes through the abdominal wall under the skin at the umbilicus.
See also: omphalocele
Synonym(s): exomphalos (2) , exumbilication (2) .

umbilical hernia

Protrusion of a loop of bowel through a weakness in the abdominal wall at the navel.

umbilical

pertaining to the umbilicus.

umbilical abscess
see urachal abscess.
umbilical clamp
used in calves and foals for the closed method of herniorrhaphy. Consists of two lightweight bars that can be screwed together very tightly. The herniated gut is evacuated from the hernia and the clamp applied to as much of the hernial pouch as can be included. The tissue beyond the clamp sloughs and the clamp can be removed.
umbilical cord
see umbilical cord.
umbilical cord infection
umbilical diverticulum
an evagination of the bowel wall at the vestigial point of attachment of the yolk sac. Called also Meckel's diverticulum.
umbilical gas gangrene
umbilicus infected with Clostridium septicum, C. oedematiens.
umbilical hemorrhage
a specific syndrome in newborn piglets. Bleeding from fleshy navel, also from ear notching, causes fatal anemia. The cause is unknown.
umbilical hernia
protrusion of abdominal contents through the abdominal wall at the umbilicus, the defect in the abdominal wall and protruding intestine being covered with skin and subcutaneous tissue. Occurs sporadically in all species and inherited in cattle and some breeds of dogs. Soft swelling at umbilicus is reducible into the abdomen through a palpable ring. May accompany omphalitis.
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Umbilical hernia in a foal. By permission from Knottenbelt DC, Pascoe RR, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, Saunders, 2003
umbilical hernia strangulation
the intestinal loop in the hernia becomes incarcerated with its lumen occluded and its blood supply compromised.
umbilical inflammation
umbilical occlusion
as when the umbilical cord is trapped between the fetus and the wall of the birth canal, causing loss of the fetal blood supply.
umbilical sinus
created by persistence of only the distal end of the intraembryonic allantoic stalk at the umbilicus.
umbilical tape
cotton tape, about 0.5 inch, with two selvedge edges. Used to tie off an umbilicus in calves and foals.
umbilical vein
one of a pair of veins which return oxygenated blood from the placenta through the umbilical cord to the ductus venosus and thence to the heart.
umbilical vein infection
umbilical vein abscess
residual after subsidence of acute omphalophlebitis.
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