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S-adenosylmetheonine was for the first time discovered by Giulio Cantoni also known as AdoMet
. It is conjugate of methionine and ATP.
Proteins including AdoMetDC, and AdoMet
synthase were identified in alfalfa and their role were mentioned under drought and salt stresses (Bagga et al., 1997; Rahman et al., 2015).
The human enzyme is a 551-amino acid protein with a central catalytic domain, harboring a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor, flanked by a C-terminal domain with a binding site for the allosteric positive regulator s-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet
) and an N-terminal domain, harboring a hexacoordinate heme with C52 and H65 as endogenous Fe ligands .
In the fall of 1973, I tested an idea that CPV transcriptase may require the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet
), considering that methylation of mRNA might be a prerequisite for natural viral mRNA synthesis in infected silkworm cells.
Metabolism of methionine is essential to the optimal functioning of the cardiovascular, skeletal and nervous system in mammal and constitutes a methionine cycle with major intermediates of methionine (Met), S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet
), S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) and Homocysteine (Hcy).
It has been established that ethylene is biosynthesized from methionine via AdoMet
and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) (Zeng et al., 2005).
Metabolism of levodopa (L-dopa) takes place in the brain and peripheral regions via the enzyme catechol-O-methyltrans-ferase (COMT) and requires S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet
) as a methyl donor for methylation reactions.
(June 1999), reported that "longterm treatment with ADoMet
[SAM] may improve survival or delay liver transplantation in the patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, especially in those with less advanced liver disease." More recently, Chinese researchers reported: "SAM prevents alcohol-induced liver injury in rats by reducing liver lipid peroxidation, anti-inflammation, and antihyperplasia ...
However, in mammals on the other hand, are unable to synthesize homocysteine de novo; rather they use methionine synthase to regenerate methionine from homocysteine to provide one-carbon units for S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet
)-dependent methylation reactions (Fig.
Por otra parte, se conoce que las poliaminas y el etileno tienen un intermediario comun en su ruta metabolica, la metionina, precursor directo de la AdoMet
(S-adenosilmetionina) que es el donador metil primario en las reacciones de transmetilacion y participa en la biosintesis de ambos, poliaminas y etileno (Onouchi et al.
Terms: (A) ACC synthase (B) AdoMet
(C) ACC oxidase (D) ACC