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plane

 [plān]
1. a flat surface determined by the position of three points in space.
2. an imaginary flat surface that divides the body into sections (see accompanying figure). adj., adj pla´nar.
3. a specified level, as the plane of anesthesia.
4. to rub away or abrade; see also planing and plastic surgery.
5. a superficial incision in the wall of a cavity or between tissue layers, especially in plastic surgery, made so that the precise point of entry into the cavity or between the layers can be determined.
Planes of section. Transverse, sagittal, and frontal planes of the body. From Applegate, 2000.
coronal p's frontal p's.
datum plane a given horizontal plane from which craniometric measurements are made.
frontal p's those planes passing longitudinally through the body, an organ, or a part, at right angles to the median plane and dividing into front and back portions. Called also coronal planes.
horizontal plane transverse plane.
median plane one passing longitudinally through the body, an organ, or a part from front to back, dividing it into right and left halves.
sagittal p's vertical planes through the body parallel to the median plane or the sagittal suture, dividing the body into unequal left and right portions.
transverse plane one passing horizontally through the body, an organ, or a part at right angles to the median and frontal planes, dividing it into upper and lower portions. Called also horizontal plane.
vertical plane one perpendicular to a horizontal plane, such as a sagittal plane, median plane, or frontal plane.

plane

(plān), [TA]
1. A two-dimensional flat surface.
2. An imaginary surface formed by extension of a point through any axis or two definite points, in reference especially to craniometry and to pelvimetry.
Synonym(s): planum
[L. planus, flat]

plane

(plān) [TA]
1. A flat surface.
See also: planum
2. An imaginary surface formed by extension through any axis or two definite points, in reference to pelvimetry and especially to craniometry.
[L. planus, flat]

plane

(plan) [L. planum, flat surface]
1. A flat or relatively smooth surface.
Enlarge picture
BODY PLANES
2. A flat surface formed by making a cut, imaginary or real, through the body or a part of it. Planes are used as points of reference by which positions of parts of the body are indicated. In the human subject, all planes are based on the body being in an upright anatomical position. See: illustration; anatomical position
3. A certain stage, as in levels of anesthesia.
4. To smooth a surface or rub away.

Addison plane

See: Addison plane

alveolocondylar plane

A plane tangent to the alveolar point with most prominent points on lower aspects of condyles of the occipital bone.

axiolabiolingual plane

A plane that passes through an incisor or canine tooth parallel to the long axis of the tooth and in a labiolingual direction.

axiomesiodistal plane

A plane that passes through a tooth parallel to the axis and in a mesiodistal direction.

Baer's plane

See: Baer's plane

bite plane

A plane formed by the biting surfaces of the teeth.

coccygeal plane

The fourth parallel plane of the pelvis.

coronal plane

A vertical plane at right angles to a sagittal plane. It divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
Synonym: frontal plane

datum plane

An assumed horizontal plane from which craniometric measurements are taken.

Daubenton's plane

See: Daubenton's plane

focal plane

One of two planes through the anterior and posterior principal foci of a dioptric system and perpendicular to the line connecting the two.

Frankfort horizontal plane

See: Frankfort horizontal plane

frontal plane

Coronal plane.

Hodge's plane

See: Hodge, Hugh Lennox

horizontal plane

A transverse plane at right angles to the vertical axis of the body.

inclined planes of the pelvis

Anterior and posterior inclined planes of the pelvic cavity, two unequal sections divided by the sciatic spines. In the larger, anterior section, the lateral walls slope toward the symphysis and arch of the pubes; the posterior walls slope in the direction of the sacrum and coccyx. The anterior inclined planes are the declivities over which rotation of the occiput takes place in the mechanism of normal labor.

inclined plane of a tooth

Any sloping surface of the cusp of a tooth.

intertubercular plane

A horizontal plane passing through the tubercles of the crests of the ilia; lies approx. at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

Listing's plane

See: Listing's plane

median plane

A vertical plane through the trunk and head dividing the body into right and left halves. Synonym: midsagittal plane
See: plane for illus.

midsagittal plane

Median plane.

Morton's plane

See: Morton's plane

occlusal plane

An imaginary plane extending from the incisal edge of the incisors along the tips of the cusps of the posterior teeth to contact the cranium. Although not a true plane, it represents the mean of the curvature of the occlusal surface.

parallel planes of the pelvis

The planes intersecting the axis of the pelvic canal at right angles. The first plane is that of the superior strait; the second that extending from the middle of the sacral vertebra to the level of the subpubic ligament. The third plane is at the level of the spines of the ischia, and the fourth plane is at the outlet.

planes of the pelvis

Imaginary planes touching the same parts of the pelvic canal on both sides.

plane of refraction

A plane passing through a refracted ray of light and drawn perpendicular to the surface at which refraction takes place.

plane of regard

A plane through the fovea of the eye; fixation point.

sagittal plane

A vertical plane through the longitudinal axis of the body or part of the body, dividing it into right and left parts. If it is through the anteroposterior midaxis and divides the body into right and left halves, it is called a median or midsagittal plane.

subcostal plane

A horizontal plane passing through the lowest points of the 10th costal cartilages. It lies approx. at the level of the third lumbar vertebra.

transverse plane

A plane that divides the body into a top and bottom portion.

treatment plane

A plane in the concave joint surface that defines the direction of joint mobilization techniques. The plane is perpendicular to a line drawn from the axis of rotation in the convex joint surface to the center of the concave surface. Joint distraction techniques are applied perpendicular to, and gliding techniques parallel to, the treatment plane.

vertical plane

Any body plane perpendicular to a horizontal plane.

visual plane

A plane passing the visual axis of the eye.

plane 

A flat surface.
aperture plane A plane that passes through the aperture of an optical system.
apparent frontoparallel plane (AFPP) Plane passing through the fixation point and containing all other points judged to appear in the same frontal plane. At about 1 metre from the eye it more or less coincides with a frontal plane; this is the abathic distance. Closer to 1 metre it is often a concave surface with its concavity turned towards the observer and beyond 1 metre it is a convex surface with its convexity turned towards the observer. See Hering-Hillebrand deviation; horopter.
cardinal plane's Planes, normal to the optical axis, which pass through the cardinal points of a lens or optical system. They are the focal planes, the nodal planes and the principal planes. (Sometimes, this definition also includes the object and image planes.) See cardinal points.
equatorial plane Vertical plane passing through the centre of curvature of the large circle of the eyeball, perpendicular to the optical axis and which divides the eyeball into anterior and posterior halves. See anterior segment of the eye; Listing's plane.
plane of fixation See plane of regard.
focal plane A plane, perpendicular to the optical axis, which passes through one of the focal points of an optical system. See principal focus.
frontal plane A vertical plane perpendicular to the median plane. When this plane passes through the centre of rotation of the eye it is called Listing's plane.
frontoparallel plane The frontal plane passing through the fixation point.
horizontal plane of the eye Plane, such as the xy plane, passing through the centre of rotation of the eye and dividing it into superior and inferior halves. When the eye is looking straight ahead this plane is horizontal. See subjective horizontal plane; xy plane.
image plane A plane, perpendicular to the optical axis at any axial image point of an optical system.
plane of incidence The plane containing the incident and reflected rays, and the normal to the surface at the point of incidence.
Listing's plane A frontal plane passing through the centre of rotation, which corresponds to the equatorial plane of the eye when it is looking in the straight-ahead position (Fig. P11).
median plane The vertical plane that divides the head into right and left halves.
plane mirror See plane mirror.
nodal plane A plane, perpendicular to the optical axis, which passes through one of the nodal points of an optical system (Fig. P12).
object plane A plane perpendicular to the optical axis at any axial object point of an optical system.
principal plane A plane perpendicular to the optical axis of an optical system at the point where the incident rays parallel to the optical axis intersect the refracted rays converging to the secondary focal point (secondary principal plane); or in which the refracted rays parallel to the optical axis intersect the incident rays coming from the primary focal point (primary principal plane). Each plane is an erect image of the other, and of the same size. For this reason they are sometimes also referred to as unit planes as they are conjugate planes in which the magnification is +1. In a thin lens these planes coincide at the lens (Fig. P12). See image distance; object distance; focal length; thin lens; nodal points; principal points; equivalent power.
plane of regard Plane containing the fixation point, the axes of fixation from the two eyes and the base line. Syn. plane of fixation.
sagittal plane A vertical plane parallel to the median plane as, for example, the yz plane.
spectacle plane A plane representing the orientation of the spectacle lenses relative to the eyes and passing through the posterior vertices of the two lenses. See pantoscopic angle; retroscopic angle; vertex distance.
subjective horizontal plane Plane fixed with respect to the eye, i.e. horizontal when the eye is in the primary position. See horizontal plane of the eye; primary position.
unit plane's See principal plane.
plane of vibration See polarized light.
visual plane The plane containing the two visual axes.
xy plane Horizontal plane of the eye containing both the x- and y-axes (Fig. P11). See anteroposterior axis; transverse axis.
yz plane Vertical plane of the eye containing both the y- and z-axes (Fig. P11). See anteroposterior axis; vertical axis.
Fig. P11 Listings plane and the axes of Fickenlarge picture
Fig. P11 Listing's plane and the axes of Fick
Fig. P12 Primary and secondary principal planes HP and H′P′ of a thick lens in air (PF, anterior focal length; P′F′, posterior focal length; SF, front vertex focal length; S′F′, back vertex focal length; SF′ 1 , back focal length of the first surface D 1 ; S′F 2 , front focal length of the second surface D 2 ; N and N′, nodal points)enlarge picture
Fig. P12 Primary and secondary principal planes HP and H′P′ of a thick lens in air (PF, anterior focal length; P′F′, posterior focal length; SF, front vertex focal length; S′F′, back vertex focal length; SF′1, back focal length of the first surface D1; S′F2, front focal length of the second surface D2; N and N′, nodal points)

plane

(plān) [TA]
1. Two-dimensional flat surface.
2. Imaginary surface formed by extension of a point through any axis or two definite points, in reference especially to craniometry and to pelvimetry.
[L. planus, flat]