and other systemic responses to inflammation.
Haptoglobin (Hp) is one of the most important acute-phase proteins
in cattle, sheep, goat, horses and cats (TIZARD, 2013a), synthesized mostly by hepatocytes but also by other tissues, like skin, lung and kidney (JAIN et al, 2011).
In the present study, DD levels in bacterial pneumonia patients were significantly higher and correlations among DD, FDPs and acute-phase proteins
CRP, hs-CRP, and procalcitonin were observed.
[40.] Ceciliani F, Giordano A, Spagnolo V The systemic reaction during inflammation: the acute-phase proteins
. Protein Pept Lett 2002; 9:211-23.
The liver is also the major organ to produce acute-phase proteins
which are closely associated inflammatory reactions.
are plasma proteins, mostly synthesised in the liver, whose plasma concentrations may increase several hundred-fold as part of the response to inflammatory stimuli.
Davis et al., "Regulation of cytokines, cytokine inhibitors, and acute-phase proteins
following anti-TNF-[alpha] therapy in rheumatoid arthritis," Journal of Immunology, vol.
As a kind of surgical intervention and a form of programmed trauma, it can cause a variety of physiological changes, including increased stress hormones, various humoral mediators, and acute-phase proteins
, such as C-reactive protein (CRP).[sup] Especially, the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6),[sup], tumor necrosis factor-a,[sup] and IL-1[sz],[sup] are considered important mediators of the pathological changes associated with surgery.
Virtually all of the abundant proteins in serum, with the exception of albumin, are A-linked glycoproteins, and the great majority of these are acute-phase proteins
that rise or fall in response to acute and chronic inflammatory stimuli (2, 3).
Studies have demonstrated close associations between obesity and increased circulating concentrations of proinflammatory molecules, including acute-phase proteins
, cytokines, adipokines, and chemokines [3,4].
Studies have demonstrated close associations between obesity and increased circulating levels of proinflammatory molecules, including acute-phase proteins
, cytokines, adipokines, and chemokines [12,15].
C-reactive protein (CRP), one of the acute-phase proteins
, is considered to be a sensitive systemic marker of inflammation following tissue damage.1 CRP synthesis in liver (hepatocytes) and its rate of expression primarily increases in response to injury or infection.