acute renal failure

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acute renal failure (ARF)

renal failure of sudden onset, such as from physical trauma, infection, inflammation, or toxicity. Symptoms include uremia and usually oliguria or anuria, with hyperkalemia and pulmonary edema. Three types are distinguished: prerenal, associated with poor systemic perfusion and decreased renal blood flow, such as with hypovolemic shock or congestive heart failure; intrarenal, associated with disease of the renal parenchyma, such as tubulointerstitial nephritis, acute interstitial nephritis, or nephrotoxicity; and postrenal, resulting from obstruction of urine flow out of the kidneys. See also renal failure.
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Causes of acute renal failure

acute renal failure

An abrupt decline in renal function, marked by a rise in serum creatinine or azotemia, triggered by various processes—e.g., sepsis, shock, trauma, kidney stones, drug toxicity (aspirin, lithium, substances of abuse), toxins, iodinated radiocontrast.

Clinical findings
• Cardiovascular
Congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, cardiac arrest occur in up to 35% of patients with ARF. The elderly with low cardiac reserve are at risk of fluid overload secondary to oliguric ARF.

• Pulmonary
Lung disease occurs in over half of patients with ARF and may be linked to shared pulmonary and renal syndromes—e.g., Goodpasture syndrome, Wegener granulomatosis, polyarteritis nodosa, cryoglobulinemia, sarcoidosis. Hypoxia is common during hemodialysis and attributed to white cell sequestration by the lungs and alveolar hypoventilation.

• GI tract
Nausea, vomiting, anorexia; GI bleeding occurs in ± one third of patients with ARF and causes nearly 10% of deaths in patients with ARF. Other GI complaints include pancreatitis, jaundice linked to hepatic congestion, blood transfusions, and sepsis.

• Infections
Occur in up to 33% of patients with ARF; most occur in the lungs and urinary tract, and have mortality rates of up to 72%.
 
• Neurologic signs of uraemia occur in one-third of ARF patients, and have the expected findings of lethargy, somnolence, reversal of the sleep-wake cycle, and cognitive or memory deficits.

Types
• Prerenal—adaptive response to volume depletion and hypotension.
• Renal/intrinsic—response to cytotoxicity, ischaemia, or inflammation with structural and functional damage to the renal parenchyma.
• Postrenal—obstruction to the passage of urine.

Acute renal failure by type
Crescentic GN—renal vasculitis, anti-GBM disease, immune complex diseases.
Acute tubular injury—ischaemic, toxic, crystals, myoglobinuria
Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.
Thrombotic microangiopathy—haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, accelerated hypertension, scleroderma.

acute renal failure

Acute kidney failure Nephrology An abrupt decline in renal function, triggered by various processes–eg, sepsis, shock, trauma, kidney stones, drug toxicity-aspirin, lithium, substances of abuse, toxins, iodinated radiocontrast. Cf Chronic kidney failure.

a·cute re·nal fail·ure

(ARF) (ă-kyūt' rē'năl fāl'yŭr)
A rapid decline of kidney function due to tubular injury. Signs are azotemia, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, and metabolic acidosis. Commonly caused by ischemia or nephrotoxins.
References in periodicals archive ?
4] The incidence of acute kidney injury is less in mixed infection (Pf/Pv).
Costs and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery.
Acute kidney injury network definition of contrast-induced nephropathy in the critically ill: Incidence and outcome.
Association of contrast-induced acute kidney injury with long-term cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing emergent percutaneous coronary intervention.
Sevoflurane protects against acute kidney injury in a small-size liver transplantation model.
Acute kidney injury is diagnosed in everyday practice through serum creatinine levels measurements in time intervals.
Patient with acute kidney injury who needs dialysis, is associated with high mortality up to 60%8.
The severity of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), calculated according to the RIFLE and AKIN staging criteria, has proven to be lower in patients evaluated using plasma NGAL and creatinine than patients evaluated and treated using creatinine alone.
Changes in the incidence and outcome for early acute kidney injury in a cohort of Australian intensive care units.
Susantitaphong P, Cruz DN, Cerda J, Abulfaraj M, Alqahtani F, Koulouridis I, Jaber BL; Acute Kidney Injury Advisory Group of the American Society of Nephrology.
NGAL value as an early tool of predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) was proven in contrast-induced AKI, AKI in critical care and even cardiac-surgery associated AKI [8-9].

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