acute HIV syndrome

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Acute HIV Syndrome

A transient, flu-like early response to HIV-1, that occurs 1 to 6 weeks after exposure to HIV-1 in 50%–70% of those with primary HIV infection. AHS presents as an acute infectious mononucleosis-like complex and is accompanied by viraemia and an immune response to HIV within 1 week to 3 months.
Clinical findings Fever, severe fatigue, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and a maculopapular rash; less commonly, diarrhoea, lightning-like pain, major weight loss, abdominal cramping, palmoplantar desquamation, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, photophobia, pruritic or urticarial rash, lymphocytic meningoencephalitis and peripheral neuropathy, all symptoms remit, and reappear as AIDS after a latency of up to several years.
Lab Mild leukopaenia, occasionally inversion of the CD4:CD8 ratio, antibodies to HIV products—gp120, gp160, p24 and p41 first appear ≥ months after infection. The syndrome affects one-third of previously healthy heterosexual subjects but is uncommon in homosexual males.

acute HIV syndrome

Acute HIV infection, primary symptomatic HIV infection A transient, flu-like early response to HIV-1, that occurs 1-6 wks after exposure to HIV-1 in 50-70% of those with 1º HIV infection; AHS presents as an acute infectious mononucleosis-like complex and is accompanied by viremia and an immune response to HIV within 1 wk to 3 months Clinical Fever, severe fatigue, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, anorexia, N&V, and a maculopapular rash, less commonly, diarrhea, lightning-like pain, major weight loss, abdominal cramping, palmoplantar desquamation, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, photophobia, lymphadenopathy, pruritic maculopapular or urticarial rash, lymphocytic meningoencephalitis and peripheral neuropathy, all Sx remit, and reappear as AIDS after a latency of up to several yrs Lab Mild leukopenia, occasionally inversion of the CD4:CD8 ratio, antibodies to HIV products–gp120, gp160, p24 and p41 first appear ≥ months after infection. See AIDS, CD4:CD8 ratio, HIV-1.
References in periodicals archive ?
"The majority of people with acute HIV infection will have some sort of symptoms of an acute viral syndrome.
signs/symptoms 5 (3-6); NS in those symptomatic, n = 37 median (IQR) Duration of symptoms, d, 6 (3-9); <0.01 median (IQR) n = 36 CD4+ cell count, cells/ 445 (295-610) NS [micro]L, median (IQR) Viral load, [log.sub.10] 5.0 (3.8-6.1) 0.07 RNA, median (IQR) * AHI, acute HIV infection; IQR, interquartile range; NAT, nucleic acid amplification testing; NS, not significant.
CDC PrEP guidelines stress that PrEP candidates must have a documented negative HIV antibody test "immediately before starting PrEP medication." (9,11) Providers should also look for signals of acute HIV infection, which may not register on a standard antibody test.
Such combined tests have been demonstrated to increase the rate of diagnosis of acute HIV infection by a factor of 1.5 when compared to third-generation tests.
Indeed, 25%-50% of those with acute HIV infection present with viral meningitis.
In acute HIV infection, the virus migrates to lymphoid organs, where it causes reactive lymphadenitis.
Acute HIV infection was first described in 1985 as a mononucleosis-like illness (Altfeld & Walker, 2005).
Almost 1 in 40 of those who tested HIV negative in a large clinic cohort in Lilongwe, Malawi, turned out to have acute HIV infection that was too recent to be detected by single or dual rapid antibody test used as the standard method of HIV diagnosis, researchers from the University of North Carolina report in a recent edition of the Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Guidelines from the Department of Health and Human Services recommend resistance tests in the clinical setting in cases of virologic failure, suboptimal virologic suppression, and acute HIV infection.
To confirm an acute HIV infection in symptomatic individuals with potential HIV risk factors, current guidelines (2) recommend use of HIV RNA (viral load) tests.
The transition to use of a fourth-generation HIV immunoassay for HIV screening throughout the DoD has substantially reduced the failure to diagnose acute HIV infection during the "window period" (i.e., the time between exposure to HIV infection and appearance of the first detectable HIV RNA).
Acute HIV infection detection and immediate treatment estimated to reduce transmission by 89% among men who have sex with men in Bangkok.

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