acute HIV syndrome

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Acute HIV Syndrome

A transient, flu-like early response to HIV-1, that occurs 1 to 6 weeks after exposure to HIV-1 in 50%–70% of those with primary HIV infection. AHS presents as an acute infectious mononucleosis-like complex and is accompanied by viraemia and an immune response to HIV within 1 week to 3 months.
Clinical findings Fever, severe fatigue, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and a maculopapular rash; less commonly, diarrhoea, lightning-like pain, major weight loss, abdominal cramping, palmoplantar desquamation, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, photophobia, pruritic or urticarial rash, lymphocytic meningoencephalitis and peripheral neuropathy, all symptoms remit, and reappear as AIDS after a latency of up to several years.
Lab Mild leukopaenia, occasionally inversion of the CD4:CD8 ratio, antibodies to HIV products—gp120, gp160, p24 and p41 first appear ≥ months after infection. The syndrome affects one-third of previously healthy heterosexual subjects but is uncommon in homosexual males.

acute HIV syndrome

Acute HIV infection, primary symptomatic HIV infection A transient, flu-like early response to HIV-1, that occurs 1-6 wks after exposure to HIV-1 in 50-70% of those with 1º HIV infection; AHS presents as an acute infectious mononucleosis-like complex and is accompanied by viremia and an immune response to HIV within 1 wk to 3 months Clinical Fever, severe fatigue, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, anorexia, N&V, and a maculopapular rash, less commonly, diarrhea, lightning-like pain, major weight loss, abdominal cramping, palmoplantar desquamation, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, photophobia, lymphadenopathy, pruritic maculopapular or urticarial rash, lymphocytic meningoencephalitis and peripheral neuropathy, all Sx remit, and reappear as AIDS after a latency of up to several yrs Lab Mild leukopenia, occasionally inversion of the CD4:CD8 ratio, antibodies to HIV products–gp120, gp160, p24 and p41 first appear ≥ months after infection. See AIDS, CD4:CD8 ratio, HIV-1.
References in periodicals archive ?
17) Acute HIV infection (AHI) was defined as a negative result for a third generation HIV rapid test followed by a reactive result for the HIV antigen/antibody combination assay, or a detectable HIV RNA testing on pooled and subsequently confirmed with an individual HIV RNA test.
Grant was first author of the iPrEx OLE study, the only published trial to examine a strategy of clinical screening for acute viral syndromes and acute HIV infection in PrEP candidates (Lancet Infect Dis.
Costs per diagnosis of acute HIV infection in community-based screening strategies: a comparative analysis of four screening algorithms.
As in the Baltimore study, none of these patients had been suspected to have acute HIV infection, though seven of the 23 subjects were determined retrospectively to have presented with symptoms of acute infection.
Indeed, 25%-50% of those with acute HIV infection present with viral meningitis.
Pattern A, which is seen in acute HIV infection, is characterized by serpiginous and greatly enlarged lymphoid follicles with reactive germinal centers (figure 1).
Acute HIV infection was first described in 1985 as a mononucleosis-like illness (Altfeld & Walker, 2005).
Almost 1 in 40 of those who tested HIV negative in a large clinic cohort in Lilongwe, Malawi, turned out to have acute HIV infection that was too recent to be detected by single or dual rapid antibody test used as the standard method of HIV diagnosis, researchers from the University of North Carolina report in a recent edition of the Journal of Infectious Diseases.
Guidelines from the Department of Health and Human Services recommend resistance tests in the clinical setting in cases of virologic failure, suboptimal virologic suppression, and acute HIV infection.
To confirm an acute HIV infection in symptomatic individuals with potential HIV risk factors, current guidelines (2) recommend use of HIV RNA (viral load) tests.

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