NF[kappa]B: nuclear factor-kappa B; STAT3: signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; AP-1: activator protein 1
; Ac: acetyl group; Ub: ubiquitin.
Yuspa, "Activator protein 1 transcription factors are fundamental to v-ras(Ha)-induced changes in gene expression in neoplastic keratinocytes," Cancer Research, vol.
Baker et al., "Dominant-negative activator protein 1 (TAM67) targets cyclooxygenase2 and osteopontin under conditions in which it specifically inhibits tumorigenesis," Cancer Research, vol.
The newly identified cancer-gene-derived protein, triggered by an animal virus, resembles "activator protein 1
," or AP-1, present in all normal cells.
NF-[kappa]B is known to interact with a large number of other transcription factors, including activator protein 1. (9) The activator protein 1 family of proteins consists of the Fos (cFos, Fos-B, Fos-related antigen 1 [FRA-1], and FRA-2) and Jun (c-Jun, Jun B, and Jun D) subfamilies.
Expression of FRA-1 was also studied, because FRA-1 belongs to the activator protein 1 family of transcription factors and members of this family are known to interact with NF-[kappa]B.
This is in agreement with the previously published finding of cross talk between p65 and Fos-Jun heterodimers of activator protein 1.23 Small upper panels in Figure 7 show activation (nuclear colocalization) of NF-[kappa]B and FRA-1 (left and right panel, respectively).
Growth of malignant cells could be regulated by various leptin-induced second messengers like STAT3 (signal transducers and activators of transcription 3), AP-1 (transcription activator protein 1
), MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and ERKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinases).
Inhibition of activator protein 1 activity and neoplastic transformation by aspirin.
Inhibition of tumor promoter-induced activator protein 1 activation and cell transformation by tea polyphenols, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, and theaflavins.