General composition of the fish assemblage: A total of seven individuals of four species, two families and one order of Chondricthyans and 2019 individuals of 44 species, 23 families and 9 orders of Actinopterygians
No chondrichthyans have been recorded in Draguny and no antiarchs, actinopterygians
and tetrapods are known further to the east in Mikhailovskoye.
As for the collagen, according to Sire and Akimenko (2004), the structure of the elasmoid scale was described in many species of actinopterygians
The fossil fish material collected consists of isolated remains of selachians and actinopterygians
and was obtained by dry sieving of unconsolidated sediments of the Cucullaea bed (Telm 4).
They cover biogeographical convergence and time-slicing, phylogenetic methods in palaeobiogeography, uncertainties in Phanerozoic global continental reconstructions and their biogeographical implications, boundaries and barriers of North American warm deserts, integrating geographical information systems and phylogenetic biogeography to assess species-level biogeographic patterns, the family Ptycholepidae as a case study of the palaeobiogeography of Early Mesozoic actinopterygians
, and disparity as a complement to taxonomy and phylogeny in biogeographic studies.
One lineage led to the ray-finned fishes, or actinopterygians
, and the other to lobe-finned fishes, or sarcopterygians; the latter gave rise to land vertebrates, Bemis explained.
As explained above, Amia and Lepisosteus were used as outgroups; the descriptions given in the literature concerning numerous other basal actinopterygians
, either fossil or living, were also taken into account in the polarization of the characters.
with head platelets covered with rounded tubercles or short ridges; scales are rhombic and carry longitudinal ridges surrounded by pores of vascular canals; a keel occurs on the visceral surface; lateral line canals are placed longitudinally in scales and open on the surface by pores.
Most of the teeth exhibit well-developed, smooth, shiny caps interpreted as the characteristic acrodine caps of actinopterygians
(e.g., 0rvig 1978).
The Lano assemblage is composed of nearly 40 vertebrate species (i.e., actinopterygians
, lissamphibians, lepidosaurs, turtles, crocodyliforms, dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and mammals), making it one of the most diverse associations hitherto known for this age in Europe (see Csiki-Sava et al., 2015).
The ray-finned fishes, technically known as Actinopterygians
, branched off 420 million years ago.