Similar to Firmicutes, levels of Actinobacteria
also decreased over time.
In this context, alternative ecosystems have attracted substantial attention of researchers for actinobacteria
screening, including extreme environments (Okoro et al.
The healthy oral cavity is characterized by a microflora dominatedbyphylumFirmicutes (genus Streptococcus, family Veillonellaceae, genus Granulicatella), Proteobacteria (genus Neisseria, Haemophilus), Actinobacteria
(genus Corynebacterium, Rothia, Actinomyces), Bacteroidetes (genus Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Porphyromona) and Fusobacteria (genus Fusobacterium).
The adult colonic and fecal microbiota is dominated by obligate anaerobes with Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes together representing more than 80%, followed by Actinobacteria
, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia, which are frequent, but generally minor constituents.
In general, the oral microbiome is diverse, and oral wash samples (surrogates for the oral flora) from 20 healthy subjects analyzed using high-throughput methods revealed the presence of 5 major phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria
, and Fusobacteria) and that Streptococcus, Veillonella, Leptotrichia, Prevotella, and Haemophilus genera were the most abundant.
Group 1 (buccal mucosa, keratinized gingiva, and hard palate) demonstrated a predominance of organisms from the phylum Firmicutes (with a very high proportion [approximately 50%] from the genus Strepto coccus) followed in relative abundance by the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and either Actinobacteria
Predominant phyla in average community compositions were Firmicutes, Actinobacteria
and Bacteriodetes with no significant change in phylum level before and after intervention.
A number of marine actinobacteria
has also been found to have larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent properties against the species (61).
Gram positive Firmicutes Bacillus subtilis Firmicutes Staphylococcus aureus Actinobacteria
27) A decline trend was observed in Actinobacteria
in both throat and feces immediately after treatment.
The gut microbiota is also dominated by less abundant phyla such as Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria
, and Euryarchaeota .
Dominating the bacterial communities were a core microbiome of taxa including Actinobacteria
, Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Proteobacteria and Sphingobacteria.