Association between infection of different strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
in subgingival plaque and clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis / J Zhejiang Univ Sci B., 8(2): 121-131 121.
(5), Haemophilus ducreyi (6) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
Results of PCR performed on serum for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
were also negative.
Staphylococcus, Enterococcus species, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas species, unusual gram negative bacteria, and the HACEK organisms (Haemophilus aphorphilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilius, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
, Cardioacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) have been shown to be present in endocarditis and may play a role in vascular inflammation as well.(28)
 found normalized PMN function after successful conservative periodontal treatment of a PLS patient, and Preus  discovered a normalized monocyte function once the periodontitis and the presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
(A.a) was eradicated.
HACEK refers to gram-negative bacilli: Haemophilus species (H parainfluenzae, H aphrophilus, and H paraphrophilus), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
, Cardiobacterium hominis Eikenella corrodens and Kingella species.
Virulence factors of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
Microbiological and clinical results of metronidazome plus amoxicillin therapy in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
It is most commonly associated with a group of gram-negative bacilli collectively known as HACEK (for Hemophilus parainfluenzae, H aphrophilus, Hemophilus paraphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae).