Compared with the healthy controls, the liver-injured rats demonstrated significantly higher serum levels of L-carnitine, while the level of acetylcarnitine
Vazquez, "Carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine
deficiency as a cause of higher levels of ammonia," BioMed Research International, vol.
Seven were higher in the end-stage OA group compared to no/early stage group (pro-hydroxyproline, acetylcarnitine
, myo-inositol, N-acetylornithine, succinate, glutamine and urea).
The first several chapters cover nutritional medicine from Gaby's perspective, then review a long list of therapeutic agents including individual sections on vitamins, mineral, amino acids, and chemical agents such as acetylcarnitine
to S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) that don't fit into those first three categories.
The demonstration of strong positive relationship of free L-carnitine with functional spermatozoal characteristics in this study have further validated the fact that intrasperm L-carnitine is involved in mitochondrial energetics, keeping in mind the various studies which demonstrated carnitine uptake and expression of OCTN2 and OCTN3 carnitine transporters in mouse sperm,13 correlation of intrasperm L-carnitine with motility and survival in cervical mucus of bovine,29 and acetylcarnitine
contributing acetyl groups for energy production in Boar spermatozoa.30
 Oleic acid, bilirubin, acetylcarnitine
, and GCDCA were significantly increased in cirrhosis patients and distinguished cirrhosis from control.
Elisseeff, "Carnitine and acetylcarnitine
modulate mesenchymal differentiation of adult stem cells," Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, vol.
is an acetylated form of carnitine which has antioxidant activities through direct scavenging free radicals and chelating catalytic metals-promoters of reactive oxidative species (ROS) .
D'Agata, "Effect of acetylcarnitine
treatment in oligoasthenospermic patients," Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, vol.
The end product of [beta]-oxidation in yeast, acetyl-CoA, is transformed to acetylcarnitine
by peroxisomal carnitine acetyl-CoA transferases and shuttled into mitochondria to fuel the Krebs cycle and respiration.
[31.] Tanphaichitr, N., 1976, In vitro stimulation of himan sperm motility by Acetylcarnitine
, Thailand, mahidol university, RamaV1 Road: 85-91.