Acanthamoeba

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Acanthamoeba

 [ah-kan″thah-me´bah]
a genus of free-living ameboid protozoa found usually in fresh water or moist soil. Certain species, such as A. castella´ni, A. poly´phaga, A. astronyx´is, and A. culbert´soni, may occur as opportunistic human pathogens, causing an acute fatal or chronic infection of the eye, brain, liver, kidney, lung, pancreas, and skin in patients with underlying disease or in immunocompromised patients.

Acanthamoeba

(ă-kan'thă-mē'bă),
A genus of free-living ameba (family Acanthamoebidae, order Amoebida) found in and characterized by the presence of acanthopodia. Human infection includes invasion of skin or colonization following injury, corneal invasion and colonization, and possibly lung or genitourinary tract colonization; a few cases of brain or central nervous system invasion have occurred, but not solely by the olfactory epithelium route of entry as with the more virulent infections caused by Naegleria fowleri. Species responsible are chiefly Acanthamoeba culbertsoni, but cases have been reported involving Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Acanthamoeba astronyxis. Most cases have been chronic rather than fulminating and rapidly fatal as with N. fowleri infection.
[G. akantha, thorn, spine, + Mod. L. amoeba, fr. G. amoibē, change]

Acanthamoeba

/Acan·tha·moe·ba/ (ah-kan″thah-me´bah) a genus of free-living ameboid protozoa (order Amoebida) found usually in fresh water or moist soil. Certain species, such as A. astronyxis, A. castellanii, A. culbertsoni, A. hatchetti, A. polyphaga, and A. rhisodes, may occur as human pathogens.

Acanthamoeba

[əkan′thəmē′bə]
a genus of free-living ameboid protozoa typically found in moist soil and water. The organisms may enter the body through a break in the skin or even though the nasal mucosa, olfactory nerve, and mucous membranes of the eye. It may cause severe infections, such as keratitis (eye infection that can lead to blindness especially with contact lens wearers), and systemic infections of the lung, genitourinary system, brain, and central nervous system. Disseminated cutaneous lesions caused by this organism are seen particularly in patients with AIDS. Although an infection may be fatal, cases are more commonly chronic and can persist for months.

Acanthamoeba

A genus of free-living pathogenic amoebae, which are ubiquitous in the environment, the cycle of which consists of 2 stages: a trophozoite (which is 14–40 µm in diameter) and a cyst (which has a double-layered wall with a diameter of 12–16 µm).

Sources
Tap water, dust, soil, sewage, air-conditioning units.
 
Diseases caused by:
Amoebic keratitis, acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis.

Acanthamoeba

A genus of free-living pathogenic amoebas Sources tap water, dust, soil, sewage, air conditioning units. See Acanthamebiasis. Cf Leptomyxid, Naegleria.

Acanthamoeba

small amebae, found in soil and water; they have been found in tissue cultures and in sporadic cases of pneumonia, general systemic infection and can produce meningoencephalitis after experimental administration. Possibly associated with granulomatous encephalitis in greyhounds. Includes A. castellani, A. culbertsoni.
References in periodicals archive ?
fowleri penetrate the CNS via the nose and not by hematogenous spread from multiple granulomas of the skin and other organs in acanthamoebiasis and balamuthiasis, deceased donors with N.
To date, approximately 200 cases of Acanthamoeba GAE and 150 cases of Balamuthia GAE have been reported with acanthamoebiasis still confined mostly to the immunocompromised and balamuthiasis affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals.
Neuroimaging studies by axial CT and/or MRI in GAE are nonspecific and often include single to multiple space-occupying lesions in the brain from the frontal cortex to the cerebellum with ring-enhancing and other focal effects slightly more common in balamuthiasis than acanthamoebiasis.
6) In 2008, Aichelburg and colleagues in Vienna reported treating a patient successfully with disseminated tuberculosis and acanthamoebiasis with topical and oral miltefosine and a combination of intravenous fluconazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a synergistic antibiotic (amikacin), and four tuberculostatic drugs.
In 1999, Oliva and colleagues successfully treated a patient with widely disseminated acanthamoebiasis following a single lung transplant for sarcoidosis with a combination of pentamidine, 5-fluorocytosine, itraconazole, and topical chlorhexidine gluconate-ketoconazole cream for skin lesions.
polyphaga are the agents of human diseases (27) including Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE) a slowly progressive CNS infection, cutaneous acanthamoebiasis (CA), and amoebic keratitis (AK).
We report on an HIV-negative but immunocompromised patient with disseminated acanthamoebiasis, granulomatous, amoebic encephalitis, and underlying miliary tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis.
Neuroimaging studies by axial computerized tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in BAE are nonspecific and often include single to multiple space-occupying lesions in the brain from the frontal cortex to the cerebellum with ring--enhancing and other focal effects slightly more common in balamuthiasis than in other free-living amebic infections of the brain, such as acanthamoebiasis and primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).
Prevention and control strategies for BAE should include (1) consideration of BAE in organ transplant and immunocompromised patients with encephalitis and skin ulcers not improving with standard therapies, especially in southern tier US states; (2) recognition of genetic risk factors for acanthamoebiasis and balamuthiasis in Hispanics; and (3) recognition of other soil or stagnant freshwater risk factors in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients with skin ulcers, chronic sinusitis, and unexplained meningoencephalitis.
Disseminated acanthamoebiasis in a renal transplant recipient with osteomyelitis and cutaneous lesions: case report and literature review.
Disseminated acanthamoebiasis after lung transplantation.
Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in a lung transplant patient.