ABO blood group


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Related to ABO blood group: Rh blood group

ABO blood group

(blŭd grūp)
The most significant and common blood group.
ABO blood groupclick for a larger image
Fig. 2 ABO blood group . Inheritance of the ABO groupings.
ABO blood groupclick for a larger image
Fig. 1 ABO blood group . Main features of the ABO blood types.

ABO blood group

a classification of blood based on natural variation in human blood types, identified and named by Karl Landsteiner (1868–1943) in 1901. There are four groups: A, B, AB and O, each classified by a particular combination of ANTIGENS on the red blood cells (see also H-SUBSTANCE) and naturally occurring ANTIBODIES in the BLOOD PLASMA. The relative frequency of the four ABO groups in the GENE POOL has been investigated in most human populations, and differs widely between races (see Fig. 1 ).

Antigens and antibodies of the same type cause AGGLUTINATION when mixed, resulting in difficulties in blood transfusion (see UNIVERSAL DONORS and UNIVERSAL RECIPIENTS). Although possessing no A or B antigens, Group O individuals have an H-antigen (see H-SUBSTANCE which is a precursor to the A and B types. H, A and B antigens are found also in human body secretions such as saliva and semen, often a useful fact in forensic tests. See SECRETOR CONDITION.

Inheritance of grouping is controlled by a single autosomal gene (see AUTOSOME on chromosome 9 with three major ALLELES, A, B and O (sometimes written as IA, IB and IO). See Fig. 2 . Four types of the A group are now known, making six multiple alleles (see MULTIPLE ALLELISM) at this LOCUS.

References in periodicals archive ?
ABO blood group associations with obesity in random samples from Advanced Medical and Dental Institute Staff and Students.
Thus, recipients' age, ABO blood group comparison, MELD score, blood loss, operating time, units of PRBCs, FFP, platelets, as well as preoperative platelet count were entered into the multivariate Cox model using forward selection.
In 1900 Land Steiner discovered ABO blood group system which create a new intricate decipline of research.
Nwibani, "Malaria in children, its association with abo blood group and haemoglobin genotype," International Journal of Development Research, vol.
The proposed mechanism believed to underlie how ABO blood group may influence cardiovascular disease risk involves the possible regulatory effect of ABO antigens on plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) [18,19].
Firestone, "The ABO blood group system," in Modern Blood Banking Transfusion Practices, p.
Association of ABO blood group with severe falciparum malaria in adults: case control study and meta-analysis.
ABO and Rh blood group systems are genetically determinant and their genes are located on chromosomes 9 and 1, respectively.4 Strong evidences from various studies suggested that the diversity of ABO blood group distribution across the population of whole world, including Pakistan.4 This diversity may reflect the difference in ethnicity and races.5 Knowledge about the distribution of blood groups may aid in planning and management of various emerging health challenges, as the association of ABO blood groups with various diseases was documented by several previous studies.10Etemadi A, et al.
The ABO blood group framework is the most critical framework for blood group similarity.
Landsteiner was a Nobel Prize winning scientist for his discovery of the ABO blood group system.