ABO blood group


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Related to ABO blood group: Rh blood group

ABO blood group

a system for classifying human blood on the basis of antigenic components of red blood cells and their corresponding antibodies. The ABO blood group is identified by the presence or absence of two different antigens, A and B, on the surface of the red blood cell. The four blood types in this grouping, A, B, AB, and O, are determined by and named for these antigens. Each ABO blood group also contains naturally occurring antibodies to the antigens it lacks. Group A has A antigens on the red cells, with anti-B antibodies in the plasma. Group B has B antigens on the red cells, and anti-A antibodies in the plasma. Group O has neither A nor B antigens, and both anti-A and anti-B in the plasma. AB has both A and B antigens on the red cells, and no anti-A or anti-B in the plasma. In addition to its significant role in transfusion therapy and transplantation, ABO blood grouping contributes to forensic medicine, to genetics, and to anthropology. See also blood group, Rh factor, transfusion. See also blood group, Rh factor, transfusion.

ABO blood group

(blŭd grūp)
The most significant and common blood group.
ABO blood groupclick for a larger image
Fig. 2 ABO blood group . Inheritance of the ABO groupings.
ABO blood groupclick for a larger image
Fig. 1 ABO blood group . Main features of the ABO blood types.

ABO blood group

a classification of blood based on natural variation in human blood types, identified and named by Karl Landsteiner (1868–1943) in 1901. There are four groups: A, B, AB and O, each classified by a particular combination of ANTIGENS on the red blood cells (see also H-SUBSTANCE) and naturally occurring ANTIBODIES in the BLOOD PLASMA. The relative frequency of the four ABO groups in the GENE POOL has been investigated in most human populations, and differs widely between races (see Fig. 1 ).

Antigens and antibodies of the same type cause AGGLUTINATION when mixed, resulting in difficulties in blood transfusion (see UNIVERSAL DONORS and UNIVERSAL RECIPIENTS). Although possessing no A or B antigens, Group O individuals have an H-antigen (see H-SUBSTANCE which is a precursor to the A and B types. H, A and B antigens are found also in human body secretions such as saliva and semen, often a useful fact in forensic tests. See SECRETOR CONDITION.

Inheritance of grouping is controlled by a single autosomal gene (see AUTOSOME on chromosome 9 with three major ALLELES, A, B and O (sometimes written as IA, IB and IO). See Fig. 2 . Four types of the A group are now known, making six multiple alleles (see MULTIPLE ALLELISM) at this LOCUS.

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Association of ABO blood group in Iraqis with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
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As understanding of ABO blood group grew, not only blood transfusion became safer but also scientists could now study one of the first human characteristics proven to be inherited.
Biological and clinical aspects of ABO blood group system.
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Antigens of the ABO blood group family have been known for a long time.
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