Abdominal Wall Defects

Abdominal Wall Defects



Abdominal wall defects are birth (congenital) defects that allow the stomach or intestines to protrude.


Many unexpected and fascinating events occur during the development of a fetus inside the womb. The stomach and intestines begin development outside the baby's abdomen and only later does the abdominal wall enclose them. Occasionally, either the umbilical opening is too large, or it develops improperly, allowing the bowels or stomach to remain outside or squeeze through the abdominal wall.

Causes and symptoms

There are many causes for birth defects that still remain unclear. Presently, the cause(s) of abdominal wall defects is unknown, and any symptoms the mother may have to indicate that the defects are present in the fetus are nondescript.


At birth, the problem is obvious, because the base of the umbilical cord at the navel will bulge or, in worse cases, contain viscera (internal organs). Before birth, an ultrasound examination may detect the problem. It is always necessary in children with one birth defect to look for others, because birth defects are usually multiple.


Abdominal wall defects are effectively treated with surgical repair. Unless there are accompanying anomalies, the surgical procedure is not overly complicated. The organs are normal, just misplaced. However, if the defect is large, it may be difficult to fit all the viscera into the small abdominal cavity.


If there are no other defects, the prognosis after surgical repair of this condition is relatively good. However, 10% of those with more severe or additional abnormalities die from it. The organs themselves are fully functional; the difficulty lies in fitting them inside the abdomen. The condition is, in fact, a hernia requiring only replacement and strengthening of the passageway through which it occurred. After surgery, increased pressure in the stretched abdomen can compromise the function of the organs inside.


Some, but by no means all, birth defects are preventable by early and attentive prenatal care, good nutrition, supplemental vitamins, diligent avoidance of all unnecessary drugs and chemicals—especially tobacco—and other elements of a healthy lifestyle.



Dunn, J. C., and E. W. Fonkalsrud. "Improved Survival of Infantswith Omphalocele." American Journal of Surgery 173 (April 1997): 284-7.

Key terms

Hernia — Movement of a structure into a place it does not belong.
Umbilical — Referring to the opening in the abdominal wall where the blood vessels from the placenta enter.
Viscera — Any of the body's organs located in the chest or abdomen.
References in periodicals archive ?
Sometimes surgeries are also done to repair other heart or abdominal wall defects.
It comprises a number of birth defects including facial dysmorphism, mental retardation, neurobehavioural disorders, heart defects, abdominal wall defects and limb abnormalities.
To the Editor: Chest abdominal wall defects are usually the result of tumor resection, infection, radiation, or trauma.
They believe their approach provides a new option for organ transplant recipients with severe abdominal wall defects, when conventional reconstructive techniques aren't sufficient to close the abdomen.
The condition encompasses variably sized 'simple' abdominal wall defects with no associated abnormalities, to those associated with a spectrum of congenitally acquired abnormalities that include BeckwithWiedemann syndrome, 'omphalocoele, extrophy, imperforate anus, spinal' (OEIS) complex and the pentalogy of Cantrell.
Al-Rabeeah said that the twins underwent clinical tests, which showed they were conjoined at the abdominal wall and the lower chest, and they shared the liver with abdominal wall defects.
A study on separation of anatomical components techniques for the reconstruction of midline abdominal defect showed that the operation is an effective method for autogenous reconstruction of massive midline abdominal wall defects.
Exomphalos and gastroschisis are common congenital anterior abdominal wall defects.
Prevalence of congenital anterior abdominal wall defects in the United Kingdom: Comparison of regional registers.
Using of prosthetic biomaterials in large animals: modern concepts about abdominal wall defects approach.
Abdominal wall defects pose a great challenge to the reconstructive surgeons even today.
An a priori decision was made to analyze the following common subgroups of anomalies: neural tube defects (Q00, Q01, Q05), congenital heart disease (Q20-Q26), respiratory system defects (Q30-Q34), orofacial clefts (Q35-Q37), digestive system defects (Q38Q38, Q402-Q409, Q41-Q45, Q790), abdominal wall defects (Q792, Q793, Q795), urinary system defects (Q60-Q64, Q794), hypospadias (Q54), and limb reduction defects (Q650-652, Q658-Q659, Q660, Q681-Q682, Q688, Q69-Q74).