abdominal compartment syndrome


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abdominal compartment syndrome

a constellation consisting of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal compromise produced by increased intraabdominal pressure from bleeding (intraabdominal or retroperitoneal), ileus, peritonitis, or insufflation.

abdominal compartment syndrome

A compression (compartment) syndrome that results when extravasated blood and other fluids cause an abrupt increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP; formally, abdominal hypertension); chronically increased IAP, due to ascites and morbid obesity, are compensated for by increased abdominal wall compliance. Acutely increased IAP develops in surgical, ICU and other critical patients.

Intraperitoneal causes
Traumatic or post-operative hemorrhage, bowel distension, visceral oedema and peritonitis, laparoscopic procedures.
 
Retroperitoneal causes
Pancreatitis, traumatic retroperitoneal or pelvic sepsis or bleeding, sepsis.

abdominal compartment syndrome

Abbreviation: ACS
An extreme increase in pressure within the abdominal cavity that disrupts the blood flow to vital organs. It can result from any condition that causes an accumulation of blood or fluid within the abdominal space or a decrease in size of the abdominal cavity, including abdominal or pelvic trauma, intra-abdominal hemorrhage, peritonitis, extensive abdominal packing, and postoperative edema of the gastrointestinal tract.

Symptoms

Clinical manifestations of ACS include hypoxemia, widened pulse pressure, and a decrease in cardiac output, urinary output, level of consciousness, and gastric pH. Intra-abdominal pressure is normally less than 5 mm Hg. Signs of organ dysfunction occur when the pressure reaches 15 to 20 mm Hg, as measured indirectly by measuring bladder pressure.

Treatment

ACS is treated surgically. Patients require meticulous supportive care, e.g., of blood volume status, hemodynamics, oxygenation, and ventilation.

References in periodicals archive ?
Gestring, Abdominal Compartment Syndrome, UpToDate, 2016, http://www.uptodate.com.
Mete, "Intestinal ischemia, bacterial translocation, and oxygen free-radical production in abdominal compartment syndrome," Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol.
In all the cases, exploratory laparotomy was done and the primary problem was dealt with and the abdomen was left open either to prevent abdominal compartment syndrome or due to inadequate tissue to approximate the defect.
There is increasing evidence that clinical management may influence the incidence and severity of IAH and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), for example much observational evidence suggests that an excessively positive fluid balance may be associated with an increased incidence and severity of IAH (5-7).
Abdominal compartment syndrome is defined as an intra-abdominal pressure of greater than 20mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction (Malbrain et al 2007).
The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is the result of various physiological alterations produced by an abnormal increase of the intra-abdominal pressure.
Miller presented "Abdominal Compartment Syndrome, Ventilator Care, and 12-Lead ECG Interpretation" at the 11th Critical Care Update in Las Vegas, Nev.
Key Words: Abdominal compartment syndrome; Intra-abdominal hypertension; Children; Pediatrics; Intravesical pressure; Percutaneous decompression; Management
Intra Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome. Br J Surg 2004;91;1102-10.
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when a physiological event creates intra-abdominal hypertension.