aberration

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aberration

 [ab″er-a´shun]
1. deviation from the normal or usual.
2. imperfect refraction or focalization of a lens.
chromatic aberration unequal refraction by a lens of light rays of different lengths passing through it, producing a blurred image and a display of colors.
dioptric aberration (spherical aberration) inability of a spherical lens to bring all rays of light to a single focus.
ventricular aberration aberrant ventricular conduction.

ab·er·ra·tion

(ab'er-ā'shŭn),
1. Deviation from the usual or normal course or pattern.
See also: chromosome.
2. Deviant development or growth.
See also: chromosome.
[L. aberratio]

aberration

(ăb′ə-rā′shən)
n.
1. A deviation from what is considered proper or normal.
2. Psychology A disorder or abnormal alteration in one's mental state.
3.
a. A defect of focus, such as blurring in an image.
b. An imperfect image caused by a physical defect in an optical element, as in a lens.
4. Genetics A deviation in the normal structure or number of chromosomes in an organism.

Aberration

A defect, deviation, or irregularity
Genetics Chromosomal aberration
Ophthalmology Any error that results in image degradation. Such errors may be chromatic, spherical, or astigmatic chromatic, and may include distortion or curvature of field; these can result from design or execution, or both.
Physics
(1) Failure of an optical or electronic lens to produce an exact geometric—and chromatic—correlation between an object and its image
(2) In a video capture device or cathode-ray tube, a deviation in which the electrostatic or electromagnetic lens does not bring the electron beam to sharply focused points on the target or screen, or to correct geometric positions, as the beam is deflected. 
Psychiatry Mental aberration
Zoology A term which, if used to denote a number of individuals within a species, unequivocally signifies infra-subspecies rank

aberration

Medtalk A defect, deviation, or irregularity Psychiatry See Mental disorder.

ab·er·ra·tion

(ab'ĕr-ā'shŭn)
1. Deviation from the usual or normal course or pattern.
2. Deviant development or growth.
See also: chromosome aberration
[L. aberratio]

aberration

A deviation from normal. The term derives from the Latin aberrare , to wander off. See also ABNORMAL.

aberration 

An optical defect in which the rays from a point object do not form a perfect point after passing through an optical system. See oblique astigmatism; coma; curvature of field; distortion.
axial chromatic aberration See aberration, longitudinal chromatic.
lateral chromatic aberration 
Defect of an optical system (eye, lens, prism, etc.) in which the size of the image of a point object is extended by a coloured fringe, due to the unequal refraction of different wavelengths (dispersion). Syn. chromatic difference of magnification; transverse chromatic aberration (TCA). See dispersion; doublet.
longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) Defect of an optical system (eye, lens, prism, etc.) due to the unequal refraction of different wavelengths (dispersion) which results in an extended image along the optical axis. In the eye, blue rays are focused in front of the retina (by about 1 D) and red rays slightly behind the retina (0.25-0.5 D) when relaxed. When the eye is accommodated for a near target, blue rays tend to be focused near the retina and red rays are focused behind the retina (1 D), because of a lag of accommodation usually occurring when viewing near targets (Fig. A1). Syn. axial chromatic aberration. See chromoretinoscopy; chromostereopsis; constringence; dispersion; doublet; achromatizing lens; macular pigment; duochrome test.
monochromatic aberration Defect of an optical system (eye, lens, prism, etc.) occurring for a single wavelength of light. There are five such aberrations: spherical aberration, coma, curvature of field, oblique astigmatism and distortion. Syn. Seidel aberration.
negative aberration See spherical aberration.
oblique aberration Aberration induced by a point object off the optical axis of the system. These comprise coma, curvature of field, distortion and oblique astigmatism.
positive aberration See spherical aberration.
prism aberration Additional effects of a prism on light, in addition to the expected change in direction of light. These effects include different magnifications, curvature of field and chromatic aberration.
Seidel aberration See monochromatic aberration.
spherical aberration Defect of an optical system due to a variation in the focusing between peripheral and paraxial rays. The larger the pupil size, the greater the difference in focusing between the two rays. In the gaussian theory, the focus of the optical system is attributed to the paraxial rays. The distance, in dioptres, between the focus of the paraxial rays and the peripheral rays represents the amount of longitudinal spherical aberration of the system. When the peripheral rays are refracted more than the paraxial rays, the aberration is said to be positive or undercorrected. When the peripheral rays are refracted less than the paraxial rays the aberration is said to be negative or overcorrected. The relaxed human eye has a small amount of positive spherical aberration (up to 1 D for a pupil of 8 mm diameter) (Fig. A2). See caustic; aplanatic lens; gaussian theory.
transverse chromatic aberration See lateral chromatic aberration.
wavefront aberration The amount of deviation between an output wavefront emanating from an optical system and a conceptualized ideal (reference) wavefront. The specification of the deviation (or error) is usually fitted with a normalized Zernike expansion. The measurement of this aberration can be done subjectively or objectively (e.g. with an aberrometer based on the Hartmann-Shack principle). The method (called aberrometry) has been applied clinically to measure the aberrations displayed by optical systems, such as the eye, the eye with a correction, contact lenses (in vitro or in situ), intraocular lenses (in vitro or in situ), in corneal refractive surgery, cataract, etc. (Fig. A3). Syn. wave-front error.
Fig. A1 Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eyeenlarge picture
Fig. A1 Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eye
Fig. A2 Spherical aberration of the eye. Two parallel rays coming from infinity are focused, one at F′, the secondary focal point corresponding to paraxial rays and the other peripheral ray in front or behind F′, depending on the type of spherical aberrationenlarge picture
Fig. A2 Spherical aberration of the eye. Two parallel rays coming from infinity are focused, one at F′, the secondary focal point corresponding to paraxial rays and the other peripheral ray in front or behind F′, depending on the type of spherical aberration
Fig. A3 An input spherical wavefront of light is centred on object O. After emerging from a lens affected by monochromatic aberration, it is no longer spherical and the image-forming rays do not meet in the single ideal image point (the paraxial image)enlarge picture
Fig. A3 An input spherical wavefront of light is centred on object O. After emerging from a lens affected by monochromatic aberration, it is no longer spherical and the image-forming rays do not meet in the single ideal image point (the paraxial image)

Table A1 Aberrations of the eye
AChromatic aberrations:
longitudinal (or axial): chromatic difference of focus
transverse (or lateral): chromatic difference of magnification
BMonochromatic aberrations (or Seidel aberrations):
Typedirectionstimulus
1. spherical aberrationlongitudinal transverselight beam passing through large pupil
2. comatransversepoints objects off the optical axis
3. oblique astigmatismlongitudinalpoints objects off the optical axis
4. curvaturelongitudinalextended objects of field
5. distortiontransverseextended objects
6. wavefront aberrationtransverseextended objects

ab·er·ra·tion

(ab'ĕr-ā'shŭn)
1. Deviation from the usual or normal course or pattern.
2. Deviant development or growth.
See also: chromosome
[L. aberratio]
References in periodicals archive ?
But this was a solitary abberation from the striker, for there was much to admire about his performance.
making certain (legitimately held) religious views and practices to be religious abberations.
This suggests that abberations in certain congenital features of the nervous system only become apparent much later in the form of restless legs syndrome.
There was no clinically significant difference in the corneal abberations between the two study groups (p > 0.05).
The ECG arrhythmia simulation has a range of 20 to 300 beats per minute and includes selectable waveforms depicting ST elevation, ST depression, and tall T abberations as well as waveforms representative of myocardial infarction (ischemia, injury, infarction, inferior infarction) and a range of atrial and ventricular impairments.
However, shadowgraphy visualization is not feasible for engines as the cylindrical shape of the liner causes strong optical abberations. Another possibility for the visualization of liquid fuel spray is Mie-Scattering Imaging.
Potential cardiac abberations performed in hyperthyroidism are seen in Figure 4.
In an editorial, guest editors point to keratoconus as just one of the success stories of wavefront abberometry, as well as its use in identifying abberations beyond myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.
[18] Mitelman Database of Chromosome Abberations in Cancer Mitelman F, Johanson B, and Martens F (Eds.), 2009; Avaliable at http:// cgap.nci.nih.gov/Chromosomes/Mitelman [accessed: November 2009]
(15) Ibrulj (2002) studying the effects of oxazepam to cells of Allium cepa's root noted that this drug shows a number of mutagenic and cytotoxic effects manifested in the form of mitotic, cytological and chromosomal abberations. Oxazepam increased mitotic activities, accelerating meristematical cell proliferation and by this way shortening the duration and dynamics of the cell cycle.
This issue of pollution is further aggravated by natural hazards, which have become unpredictable due to abberations in the weather pattern," said Legarda who chairs the Senate Committee on Climate Change.
Here the genetics of leiomyomata and the current understanding of cytogenetic abberations and gene expression with respect to their contributions to the development of these tumors is summarized.