AZOOR


Also found in: Acronyms.

AZOOR

(ā'zūr),

Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy

An often bilateral condition affecting young white women, typically presenting with central photopsia, progressive scotomata and blurring of vision. The fundal examination is strikingly unremarkable despite marked electrophysiologically detectable retinal dysfunction. AZOOR stabilises over months with the development of retinal pigment epithelial atrophy and intraretinal pigment migration corresponding to the zones of field loss.
Aetiology Viral or autoimmune aetiology.
AZOOR shares much in common with the other “white dot” syndromes, including acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement syndrome, acute macular neuroretinitis, multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis, multiple evanescent white dots syndrome, multifocal inner choroiditis, pseudo-presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, and punctate inner choroiditis, all of which affect young females and may be accompanied by unexplained visual field loss and similar electrophysiologic defects.

AZOOR

Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, see there.
References in periodicals archive ?
Visual field defect is also one of the main findings in cases of AZOOR. Several types of visual field defects have been observed, such as blind spot enlargement, constriction of the peripheral visual field, and central scotomas [1].
Electrophysiology is the critical testing for confirmation of diagnosis in cases of AZOOR [1-3].
[3] identified a pattern of electrophysiological anomalies in AZOOR cases where all affected eyes demonstrated delayed implicit time of the 30 Hz cone flicker ERG.
Even the pathophysiology of AZOOR is not clear since it is either considered part of the white dot disease spectrum or triggered by inflammatory disorders such as punctuate inner choroiditis and multifocal inner choroiditis [3].
This retrospective observational case series included 14 affected eyes and 6 unaffected fellow eyes as controls from 10 patients with AZOOR (2 men and 8 women) who visited Hokkaido University Hospital from May 2011 through September 2014.
The diagnostic criteria for AZOOR were as follows: acute visual field or vision loss usually with concurrent photopsia; one or more visual field defect regions that could not be explained by funduscopic examination or fluorescein angiography (FA); decreased multifocal ERG responses corresponding to retinal sites with visual field defects; and outer retinal morphologic abnormalities, including absence or discontinuity of the ellipsoid zone and/or the interdigitation zone on OCT [2, 4, 5, 17].
EDI-OCT measurements were obtained for each of the evaluation points at the initial visit and 3 and 6 months after the initial visit for nontreated AZOOR patients and before treatment and 3 and 6 months after the start of treatment for AZOOR patients receiving systemic corticosteroids.
Using Humphrey perimetry, 4 adjacent threshold points at the lesion area were selected at the lesion area in the AZOOR eyes (Figures 1(c) and 1(d); red squares) and the corresponding area to the 4 points evaluated for each affected eye in the fellow eyes.
A review of the presented data appears to demonstrate female predominance, in order from most to least, in the following diseases: PIC > AZOOR > MFC > MEWDS.
Though this review revealed female predominance in PIC, AZOOR, MFC, and MEWDS, treatment differences have not been documented between these and the other white dot syndromes [34, 35, 48, 61].
This may be a possible reason why the ratio is much closer in female : male involvement in BCR than such diseases as PIC, AZOOR, MFC, and MEWDS.
In conclusion, though in this review PIC, AZOOR, MFC, and MEWD were found to have female predominance, there does not appear to be a significant difference in clinical presentation nor in the treatment of these diseases between the genders.