Beta-actin (aa 27-375), gamma-actin, alpha-internexin, beta-synuclein, and unnamed protein product, and the 9 proteins with decreased expression levels were identified as tubulin beta-5 chain, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1, atp5b
protein, partial, gamma-enolase isoform 1, calretinin, heme-binding protein, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1, COP9 signalosome complex subunit 4, and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (Table 3).
In addition, two subunits of mitochondrial ATP synthase (encoded by ATP5B
and ATP5H) were also increased.
Cui, "2,2/,4,4/-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether injures cell viability and mitochondrial function of mouse spermatocytes by decreasing mitochondrial proteins Atp5b
and Uqcrc1," Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol.
 demonstrated in ND4 mice (an in vivo model for MS) an impaired transport of ATP5b
mRNA (which generates subunit [beta]) to mitochondria.
The genes tested included the genes of interest: AQP1, Acta2 (or [alpha]SMA), and GFAP, as well as two reference genes: ATP5B
These genes included succinate dehydrogenase (SDHC), cytochrome c oxidase (COX5B/ COX6B), and various genes of the ATP synthase complex (ATP5G1, ATP5C1, ATP5J, ATP5B
, ATP5A1, ATP50, and ATP5F1).
Next, 9 overlapping proteins (ATP5B
, CALM1, COL1A1, HBB, HSPA5, MGC72973, SOD1, LOC100134871, and LOC689064) between the system pharmacology targets and proteins regulated in BJF-treated rats were identified.
From these values the normalization factor was calculated as the geometric mean of expression data of the three most stable out of six tested potential reference genes (ATP5B
, CANX, CYC1, EIF4, GAPDH, and RPS9).
To further study the effect of electroacupuncture on the expression of PGC-1[alpha] associated genes, the gene expressions of subunit B of ATP synthase (ATP5B
), cytochrome c 1 (CYC1), and cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb (COX5B) were analyzed which have been shown to be directly regulated by PGC-1[alpha] .
An important property of the neurodegenerative diseases is the downregulated oxidative phosphorylation because of the dysfunctional brain mitochondria and the varied genes including UQCRC1, UQCR10, SDHB, ATP5B
, ATP5C1, NFUFA1, and VDAC1.
To illustrate that geometric normalization with several reference proteins achieves accurate quantification and allows direct comparison or protein abundances between rat and human beta cell preps, I verified the stoichiometry of a classical multiprotein complex: the mitochondrial F0F1 ATPase (Figure S2.B): the geometrically normalized molar abundances of subunits ATP5D, ATP5O, ATP5F1, and ATP5H all occur at approximately 1: 3 to the abundances of subunits ATP5A1 and ATP5B
, in line with the predicted stoichiometry .
The affected hippocampal proteins (including [alpha]-enolase, [gamma]-enolase, Atp5b
, and [alpha]-synuclein) tend to participate in metabolism and energy production.