In line with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that chemokines CCL3 (MIP1a), CCL4 (MIP1[beta]), and CCL5 (RANTES) efficiently inhibit release of IL-1[beta] in response to ATP receptor
Using a reporter gene assay, we conducted initial characterization of the ATP receptor through analog specificity studies using P2X receptor agonists and antagonists with differing receptor subtype selectivity.
These results indicate that pPfTx mimics the action of ATP to induce c-fos luciferase and cytoxtoxicity in [GH.sub.4][C.sub.1] cells and lead us to conduct preliminary characterization of the ATP receptor on [GH.sub.4][C.sub.1] cells.
Esquerda, "Neurotoxic species of misfolded SOD1G93A recognized by antibodies against the P2X4 subunit of the ATP receptor
accumulate in damaged neurons of transgenic animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis," Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol.
Furthermore, mitochondria added to mast cells trigger degranulation and release of histamine, PG[D.sub.2], IL-8, TNF-[alpha], and IL-1[beta], and this response is partially inhibited by DNAse and ATP receptor
Following nerve injury, microglia upregulate their expression of the ionotropic ATP receptor
P2X4 concurrently with the development of allodynia .
We further demonstrated that the uptake was time-and concentration-dependent and regulated by ATP receptors
and glucose transporters.
He reported a new role of spinal microglia in evoking neuropathic pain through the function of P2X4 receptors, a subtype of ATP receptors
. This paper was a breakthrough for the field and made new movement of the pain research.
First, we found that blockade of ATP signaling with suramin, a broadspectrum antagonist of ATP receptors
, reduced airway hyper-responsiveness, Th17 responses, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) neutrophilia, and airway inflammation.
Moreover, the ATP receptors
, as well as P2X7 receptor, were also linked with other pathological situation such as thyroid cancer.
Activated spinal microglia enhance their expression of the ATP receptors
subtype P2X4; and the presence of ATP leads to neuropathic pain.
Specific topics include regulated releases of nucleotides and UDP sugars from astrocytoma cells, ectonucleotidases in the nervous system, ATP receptors
of microglia involved in pain, and promoting neurotrophic effects by GPCR ligands.