For men, DNAJB5, RAC3, EAPP, HDLBP, PRG2, PER1, PIK31, and SLA2 were selected for validation, whereas for women the gene list for validation included AKAP6, LIMK1, SIRT7, ARHPGAP4, ATG16L2, TPM3, 5-HT1B, and PYGO2.
For [PM.sub.2.5] exposure, we could confirm two out of eight genes [DNAJB5 (borderline significant, p = 0.059) and EAPP] for men and four out of eight genes for women [ARHGAP4, PYGO2, sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) and Autophagy related 16-like 2 (ATG16L2)] (see Table S1).
Besides ARHGAP4, our [PM.sub.2.5]-exposure analysis for women identified PYGO2, SIRT7, and ATG16L2 as significantly associated with particulate matter exposure.
Autophagy related 16-like 2 (ATG16L2) is a core autophagy gene.
For women, we identified ARHGAP4, PYGO2, SIRT7, and ATG16L2 as biomarker genes of exposure.
For instance, the variant T300A of ATG16L1 has been widely reported as a risk factor that functions in autophagy during CD-related intestinal inflammation [75, 86], which also facilitated the identification of susceptibility genes IRGM1, SMURF1, and ATG16L2
in CD [83, 87-89].