ATF4, a crucial transcription factor, which is induced by PERK-mediation of phosphorylation of eIF2[alpha]; and activates pro-apoptotic factor CFIOP and GADD34 (Fian et al.
Transcription of the CFIOP gene has been reported to be activated by XBP1, ATF4 and ATF6 (Oyadomari and Mori 2004).
Abbreviations: ALL, acute lymphoblastic leukemia; ATF4, activating transcription factor-4; ATF6, activating transcription factor-6; CHOP, C/EBP homologous protein; CPT, cryptotanshinone; DDIT3, DNA damage-inducible transcript 3; elF, eukaryotic initiation factor; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD, ER-associated degradation pathway; IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis; IRE1, inositol-requiring enzyme-1; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; PERK, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase; PI3K, phosphoinositide-3-kinase; ROS, reactive oxygen species; UPR, unfolded protein responses; XBPI, X-box protein 1.
The expression of ATF4 stayed at a higher level in oligodendrocytes transfected with p.
Some stress-induced transcriptors as ATF4 are exempt from the inhibition through specific features in their 5'untranslated regions.
2004; Rutkowski and Kaufman 2004), we determined the expression of ATF4 and the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 on serine 51 of its [alpha] subunit (eIF2[alpha]), an upstream regulator of ATF4 expression (Harding et al.
Accumulation of ATF4 and phosphoeIF2[alpha] by Cd[Cl.
The levels of ATF4 and phospho-eIF2[alpha] proteins were elevated in cells exposed to Cd[Cl.
The membranes were incubated with the antibodies against CRT (1:1000, Stressgen), Nrf2 (1:1000, Santa Cruz), ATF4 (1:1000, Santa Cruz), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) (1:1000, Santa Cruz), CHOP (1:200, Santa Cruz), caspase-12 (1:1000, Santa Cruz), caspase-3 (1:1000, Santa Cruz), Bax (1:200, Santa Cruz), Bcl-2 (1:200, Santa Cruz) and GAPDH (1:500, Santa Cruz), respectively overnight at 4[degrees]C.
Along with the translocation of CRT from ER to nucleus, the expression of transcription factors such as Nrf2 and ATF4 in nuclear extracts increased [Figure 3]a and b compared with control] ( P < 0.
Along with the nuclear translocation of CRT, the expression of transcription factors such as Nrf2 [sup] and ATF4 in nuclear extracts also increased.
Storey, "Coping with the stress: expression of ATF4
, ATF6, and downstream targets in organs of hibernating ground squirrels," Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol.