knockout mice to model human diseases.
In addition to the production of exosomes via an ESCRT-dependent pathway, sphingolipid ceramide also mediates the production of exosomes and a hydrochloride hydrate (GW4869) can induce the inactivation of the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase
Avota and coworkers demonstrated that binding ofmeasles virus to pattern recognition receptor on DCs leads to an activation of aSMase
and enhanced virus uptake into DCs .
Several isoforms of SMase that can be distinguished by their optima pH, neutral SMase (NSMase), and acid SMase (ASMase
) are mostly found in mitochondria and lysosomes, respectively .
Rituximab partially prevented SMPDL-3b and ASMase
downregulation that was observed in podocytes treated with the sera of patients with recurrent FSGS.
NK, natural killer; uPAR, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor; suPAR, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor; GPI, glycosylphosphatidylinositol; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; NFAT, nuclear factor of activated T cells; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; GTP, guanosine-5'- triphosphate; SMPDL, sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like; ASMase
, acid sphingomyelinase.
Fucho et al., "ASMase
is required for chronic alcohol induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial cholesterol loading," Journal of Hepatology, vol.
TABLE 2: Effect of myriocin treatment (for 7 days) and high fat diet feeding (for 5 weeks) on the neutral (nSMase) and acidic (aSMase
) sphingomyelinases activities in rat skeletal muscle [n (per group) = 8].
Ceramide induces aSMase
expression: implications for oxLDL-induced apoptosis.
Enzymes involved in nervous cell differentiation (nSMase)  and lysosomal enzymes involved in nervous cell damage such as acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase
), [beta]-hexosaminidase, [alpha]-fucosidase, [beta]-mannosidase, a-mannosidase, [beta]-galactosidase, and [beta]-glucocerebrosidase [19, 20] were assayed.
Importantly, loss of epithelial stem cells did not occur when endothelial apoptosis was blocked by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) treatment or by genetic deletion of the acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase
)--a gene that is required for radiation-induced endothelial apoptosis.
Endocytic vesicular pathways are involved in plasma membrane complex sphingolipid internalization to the lysosomes where hydrolysis is catalyzed by acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase
), acid ceramidase (aCDase), and glycosidase.