Furthermore, the flexible polysaccharide blocks containing 2-5% galactan have the ability to recognize hepatocytes due to the presence of asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR
) on which galactose acts as a specific adhesive ligand on the hepatocytes [15-19] (Figure 2).
Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) scintigraphy is a direct quantitative evaluation of liver function and relies on the fact that [sup.99m]Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin ([sup.99m]Tc-GSA) binds to ASGPR expressed on the surfaces of hepatocytes (4).
Asialoglycoprotein selectively binds to ASGPR, which characteristically exists on the hepatocyte surface.
[sup.99m]Tc-GSA scintigraphy is a liver scintigraphy using the synthetic glycoprotein--[sup.99m]Tc-GSA--that specifically binds to ASGPR expressed on the membrane surfaces of hepatocytes (4).
) DC-ASGPR induces suppressive responses.
Smyk et al., "Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR
) as target autoantigen in liver autoimmunity: lost and found," Autoimmunity Reviews, vol.
IgA has been described to interact with various host receptors, that is, pIgR, FcaRI (CD89), transferrin receptor (CD71), asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR
), and Fca/[micro]R.
SMA smooth musle antibodies, AAA anti-actin antibodies, SLA soluble liver antigen, LP liver-pancreas antigen, LSP liver specific protein, ASGPR
asialo-glycoprotein-receptor, LKM liver kidney microsomes, CYP cytochrome P450, AMA anitmitochondrial antibodies, PDH pyruvat dehydrogenase, p-ANCA perinuclear antineutrophile cytoplasmatic antibodies, MRC magnetic resonance cholangiography, HEV hepatitis E virus, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, TTG tissue transglutaminase, TSH thyroid stimulating hormone.
Conrad, "Asialoglycoprotein Receptor (ASGPR
): APeculiar Target of Liver-Specific Autoimmunity," Autoimmunity Highlights, vol.