ARF6


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ARF6

A gene on chromosome 14q21.3 that encodes a protein of the ADP-ribosylation factor gene family, which encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and are involved in vesicular trafficking as phospholipase D activators. ARF6 localises to the plasma membrane and regulates vesicular trafficking, membrane lipid remodelling and actin remodelling.
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Pinzon et al., "The Arf6 activator Efa6/PSD3 confers regional specificity and modulates ethanol consumption in Drosophila and humans," Molecular Psychiatry, 2017.
However, CT or pentameric CTB may be endocytosed, depending on cell type, either through caveolin-coated vesicles, clathrin-coated vesicles or by the so-called Arf6 endocytic pathway.
Genetic studies have implicated different ARFs in diverse growth processes including embryogenesis (ARF5/MONPTEROS, ARF17), root (ARF7/NPH4, ARF10, ARF16, ARF19) and floral development (ARF1, ARF2, ARF3/ETT1N, ARF6, ARF8), and senescence (ARF2).
Microvesicle fission is due to myosin and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements regulated by the Ras-related GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) and its signaling cascade [35].
LincRNA-RoR-mediated downregulation of miR-145 led to upregulation of ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6), which is strongly involved in metastatic processes; indeed, ARF6 affected E-cadherin localization and impaired cell-cell adhesion, promoting cell invasion in TNBCs [126].
Reed, "Arabidopis microRNA 167 controls patterns of ARF6 and ARF8 expression, and regulates both female and male reproduction," Development, vol.
Endocytosis of CT may follow one of three pathways: (i) lipid raft/caveolae mediated endocytic pathway, (ii) clathrin mediated endocytic pathway, or (iii) ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6)-associated endocytic pathway.