In heifers, expression analysis of 40 candidate genes chosen by RNA-Seq resulted in dynamic, significantly regulated genes with extreme fold regulation values, ranging from 5-fold downregulation (APOA4
) up to 82-fold up-regulation (SerpinI2).
Por otro lado, las cantidades relativas de apoA4
y de la isoforma mayor de apoAI, asi como apoE, se encontraron en menor proporcion en las LDL de los sujetos obesos; sin embargo, esta diferencia solo se observo en sujetos del genero masculino.
A proximal part of Chr 9 is known to have many genes relevant to lipid metabolism, including Apoa1, Apoc3, Apoa4
, Apoa5, and Lipc, and multiple QTL including Cq4, Cq5, and Hdlq17  have been reported.
Genes and gene products associated with blood microparticle (GO:0072562) can be found by the GO tool, in which APOA4
(Apolipoprotein A4), kng1 (Kininogen 1), and other genes have been illustrated to be associated with cholangiocarcinoma [39-41].
For the SID-MRM analysis, we first synthesized stable-isotope standard (SIS) peptides (>95% purity) for 15 proteins (APLP2, APOA4
, APOH, B3GNT1, C4B, C5, C7, CD14, CLU, FN1, GSN, ITIH2, KRT1, SERPINF1, and VTN).
As compared to healthy controls, the whole RTT group showed significant increase in 10 protein spots [i.e., complement factor B (CFAB), fibrinogen alpha chain (FIBA), serum albumin (ALBU, spots number 3, number 7 C terminal fragment and number 14 N terminal fragment) alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT, spots number 4 and number 5), haptoglobin (HPT, spots number 9 and number 15), and transthyretin (TTHY spot number 11)] and decrease in 6 protein spots [i.e., vitamin D-binding protein (VTDB), apolipoprotein A4 (APOA4
), clusterin (cLuS), apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), retinol-binding protein 4 (RET4), and transthyretin (TTHY spot number 16)] (Table 1 and Figures 1(a), 1(b), and 2(a)).
2004)--were affected by Western diet in B6 and B6.D2 mice: ApoA4
([up arrow]15.9-fold and [up arrow]10.2-fold), which is involved in innate immunity and fat localization (Shen et al.
On the other hand, notes Ordovas, "people with a specific mutation of the APOA4
gene have less than half as much improvement in blood lipids from the cholesterol-lowering diet as those with no mutation." But in a study by other researchers, he adds, people with a different APOA4
mutation consumed a high-cholesterol diet without raising their blood cholesterol.
The eight differentially expressed proteins included third party data (TPA): vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC), complement C4 precursor (C4), paraoxonase 1 (PONI), A2M, endopin 1 (EN1), TPA: apolipoprotein A-IV precursor (APOA4
), alpha-1-antitrypsin, and haptoglobin (HP).
APOA2 is a member of the apolipoprotein multigene superfamily, which includes genes encoding soluble apolipoproteins (e.g., APOA1 and APOA4
) that share genomic structure and several functions.
The 1.6-fold increase in Cyp7b1 (Table 1), and the downregulation of fatty acid-binding protein-2 (Fabp2) and apolipoprotein AIV (Apoa4
) (Table 2), provide further evidence of the possible involvement of CYP1A2 in fatty acid and cholesterol pathways.