A Taiwanese group composed another panel with 4 proteins (MMP1, KNG1, ANXA2
, and HSPA5) that able to diagnose OSCC and also to predict OPMDs malignant transformation .
Initially, in postmenopausal Caucasian women, Annexin A2 (ANXA2
) was found to be upregulated in low BMD condition and this was validated at mRNA and protein levels in separate cohorts .
Expression of annexin a1 (anxa1) and a2 (anxa2
) and its significance in benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder.
As can be expected, these genes can be assigned to different functional groups such as cell death regulators (CASP2, ING2, MDM4, NAIP), transcriptional and translational regulation (DEPDC1, GABPB1, LHFPL2, NFIB, P0LR3C, RPL34, RPS3A, RPS21, RPS25, TFDP2, TRIM24, ZBTB1, ZBTB38, ZFP112), oxidative stress response (SPATS2L, GSTT2B, NQO1), DNA maintenance and processing (BAHCC1, FANCA, H1ST1H3G, IK, KDM4C, MCM7, PRB3, RNASEH2B, SNRPE, TFDP2), blood coagulation (FGA, MATR3, PROCR, P1K3CG), signal transduction (ANXA2
, ARHGAP19, C7orf47, CCDC50, DTX3, FHL2, P1K3CG, RALB, T1CAM2), cytoskeletal components (BCL7A, DYNC1LI2, SEPT10, SEPT11), transport functions (ABCC1, FXYD2, S100A6, SCNN1G, XP05), or others (ADAM22, ALDH3A2, FAM161A, HDDC2, HLA-F).
Figure 6 shows six "hub" genes, CD44, ANXA2
, VEGFC, CTGF, PTK2, and TJP1.
Smith et al., Global methylation was 2011  increased in subjects with PTSD, as compared to control subjects or subjects with a history of childhood trauma; CpG sites in TPR, CLEC9A, APC5, ANXA2
, and TLR8 were differentially methylated in subjects with PTSD.
For qPCR data, we normalized all transcript abundances to the 3 genes in the saliva internal reference (SIR): ANXA2
(annexin A2),  RPL37 (ribosomal protein L37), and S100A8 (S100 calcium binding protein A8) (see Supplementary Methods in the online Data Supplement).
Genes involved in cytosketetal structure and function (Vim, Tubb5, Tmsb10, Tmsb4x, Anxa2
), in cell adhesion (Spp1, Col1a1, Clu, Lgals3), and detoxification enzymes (Gstm2, Gstp2) are upregulated following cisplatin-induced injury.
One of these factors may be annexin A2 (Anxa2
), which is found in most eukaryotic cell types and is a calcium-dependent, phospholipid-binding protein, involved in regulating cellular functions.
Of these, 24 proteins were also identified within the laryngeal cancer cell line-relevant secretome by Sepiashivili et al., including KLK6, ANXA2
, CALR, CLU, TIMP1 , TIMP2, and THBS1.
Immunohistochemical labeling of several genes including CDKN1A, (12) PSCA, (7,13) MMP7, (14) MUC4, (15,16) CLDN18, (17) ANXA2
, (18) BIRC5, (19,20) MUC5, (7) and S100P (21) in multiple PanIN lesions has shown a progressive increase in their expression from low- to high-grade PanINs and leading into invasive cancer.
The other calcium-binding proteins in this cluster, annexin A2 (Anxa2
) and annexin A6 (Anxa6), are not reported to have such a relationship to fibrosis, but as calcium-binding proteins, and it is interesting to observe that they are increased in expression in the same manner as calcyclin.