a-escin inhibits NNK-induced lung adenocarcinoma and ALDH1A1
and RhoA/ Rock expression in A/J mice and growth of H460 human lung cancer cells.
We first developed and analytically validated 3 multiplex RT-qPCR assays for the quantitative determination of (a) Epithelial markers: CK-19 (KRT19), EpCAM, E-cadherin (CDH1), and HMBS (reference gene); (b) Stem cell markers: PSCA, ALDH1A1
, CD133 (PROM1), and HPRT1 (reference gene); and (c) EMT markers: TWIST1, Vimentin (VIM), N-cadherin (CDH2), and B2M (reference gene).
These genes encoded proteins primarily involved in integrin signalling pathways (ACTA2, PIK3C2G, COL4A6, CAV1, LAMA1, FN1, and ITGA8), regulation of hormone levels (NR5A1, TIPARP, ACE, CRYM, CGA, ALDH1A1
, TBX3, POMC, GHRH, and ALDH6), camera-type eye development (TGFBR2, BMP4, FABP7, STRA6, SIX6, and WNT6), blood vessel development (Figure S1, goo.gl/tC9GTZ), and regulation of cellular response to growth factor stimulus (see Figure 2).
We also analyzed the association of HOXA9 with the SC marker ALDH1A1
in CRC patients using TCGA database.
Moreover, C3-knockout mice demonstrated higher expression levels of genes involved in maintaining the physiological function of the neural retina: abhydrolase domain containing 14A (Abhd14a); complexin 4 (Cplx4); cGMP specific-phosphodiesterase 6C (Pde6c); neurofilament (Nefl); aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A1 (Aldh1a1
); retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator interacting protein-1 (Rpgrip1); and regulator of G protein signaling 9 binding protein (Rgs9bp).
Subsequently, the membranes were blocked with 5% non-fat milk in TBST [25 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5), 125 mM NaCl, 0.05% Tween-20] at room temperature for 1 h, membranes were incubated with specific primary antibodies against CD133 (Cell Applications, San Diego, CA), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1
; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, Texas), integrin/il, phosphorylated ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase (Akt; Ser 473), Akt, phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase3[beta] (GSK3[beta]; Ser 9), GSK[beta], ZEB1, Oct-4, Nanog, Sox2, Slug, Snail and [beta]-actin (Cell Signaling, Danvers, MA) at 4[degrees]C overnight.
However, researchers have found that another polymorphism, called ALDH1A1*2 in the ALDH1A1
gene, is associated with greater risk for alcoholism in African populations (Moore et al.
Unlike the mouse, the rabbit corneas preferentially express aldehyde dehydrogenase class 1 (ALDH1A1
) [11, 233].
The following primer sequences were designed across exon-exon junctions using Primer 3 Plus in order to detect the respective mRNA transcripts: IGF-1 forward: 5'-GGAGCTGTGATCTAAGGAGGC-3'; IGF-1 reverse: 5-GGACAGAGCGAGCTGACTT-3'; ALDH1A1
forward: 5-TGGCTTATCAGCAGGAGTGTT-3'; ALDH1A1
reverse: 5' -CACT TACCACGCCATAGCAA-3'.
Associations of other candidate alcohol dependence genes, such as KIAA0040, ALDH1A1
, and MANBA [18, 20, 22-25], remain to be confirmed.
A year ago, Ziouzenkova's lab identified the one of these enzymes that relates to fat accumulation: Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1, or Aldh1a1
. In the current study, she and colleagues conducted numerous experiments in mice to track the events that followed activation of this enzyme.
A key step in retinoid metabolism occurs with help from an enzyme called retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1, or Aldh1a1
. The researchers saw that in humans and mice, Aldh1a1
is abundant in white fat cells, especially in the more dangerous visceral fat (sometimes referred to as abdominal fat or belly fat).