Akt is Ser/Thr kinase which is also referred to as protein kinase B (PKB) in mammalian genomes have three Akt genes namely: Akt1 (Protein kinaseB [alpha]), Akt2 (Protein kinaseB [beta]) and Akt3
(Protein kinaseB [gamma]) and they are extensively expressed in various tissues.
Circular RNA ZNF609 functions as a competitive endogenous RNA to regulate AKT3
expression by sponging miR-150-5p in Hirschsprung's disease.
(expressing circRNA53) affects the insulin-like growth factor-I-mediated signaling and survival in myoblasts [33,34].
AKT1 or of cellular growth and proliferation, such as AKT3
and PIK3CA, transcriptional regulators, such as STAT3, POLR2A, and GL1, cellular apoptosis coordinators, including arachnoid location, such as TRAF7, c-fos, or bcl-2, Hedgehog pathway regulating adult stem cells, involved in maintenance and regeneration of adult tissues, such as SMO and SUFU, cellular motility coordinators, i.e.
appears to play a key role in brain growth, with mice whose AKT3
gene is silenced showing smaller brain size.
Endochondral Actin Focal ossification cytoskeleton adhesion VEGFA FGF2 COL11A1 ADAMTS4 FGFR1 COL3A1 PLAT4 TMSB4X COL4A1 COL10A1 GNA13 COL4A2 TGFB2 PDGFA COL4A4 PTHrP FGF1 COL5A1 FGF2 ENAH COL5A2 C4ST1 MSN COL1A1 FGFR1 GSN LAMC2 PDGFRB PDGFRB THBS2 COL1 KRAS CAV2 MRAS ARHGAP5 SOS2 PTEN AKT3
PDGFA PDGFC PGF ITGA2 PDGFRB RAP1B MAPK8 TGF[beta] MAPK signaling signaling Adipogenesis SMURF1 MAPK8 FOXO1A MAPK8 NGFB TRIB3 SKP1 PDGFRB PCK2 NEDD9 RASA2 EGR2 ETS1 SOS2 DDIT3 KLF11 KRAS GADD45A ATF3 MRAS GADD45B FOSB NF1 HIF1A SKIL RAP1B IRS1 SMURF1 DUSP1 MEF2D ZFYVE16 DDIT3 FAS HSPB1 SPOCK IL1A FAS TGFB2 MAP313 ZAK AKT3
MAP3K8 GADD45A Table 2: Genes involved in osteogenesis-related pathways that are downregulated in CYD-treated hMSCs.
Nevertheless, different studies have shown association between iHME and mutations in AKT3
, PIK3CA and MTOR genes.
Rarity of AKT1 and AKT3
E17K mutations in squamous cell carcinoma of lung.
Also termed RAC-PK ("related to the A and C kinases"), the Akt isoforms comprise a family of three members -Akt1 (PKB-[alpha]), Akt2 (PKB-[beta]), and Akt3
(PKB[gamma])--and their activities are very susceptible to metabolic alterations such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (18).
A total of 16 of 17 changes were concordant in OncoPanel, with the exception of an AKT3
high-copy gain in 1 glioblastoma.
Mutations of the RAS pathway included those encoded by the ERBB2, KRAS, BRAF, and EGFR genes, while in the PI3K pathway, PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT1, and AKT3
were found to be mutated.
Zhu et al., "Circular RNA ZNF609 functions as a competitive endogenous RNA to regulate AKT3
expression by sponging miR-150-5p in Hirschsprung's disease," Oncotarget, vol.