mRNA is highly expressed in embryonic brown fat and the AKT2
kinase is activated by insulin.
To confirm this hypothesis, we examined two subunits of Akt (Akt1 and Akt2
We found that loss of Epac1 in the mouse retinal vasculature led to decreased insulin signaling, based upon reduced phosphorylation of insulin receptor and Akt2
Epithelial marker genes (EPCAM, MUC1, and KRT19) were always expressed in correlation with stemness (ALDH1A1, TWIST1, and AKT2
) or EMT marking genes (VIM), but never exclusively (data not shown).
Table 2: Molecular alterations in invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma Gene Chromosomal Percentage of Carcinoma Region with Genetic Alteration KRAS 12p 90 P16/CDKN2A 9p 95 TP53 17p 50-70 SMAD4 18q 55 AKT2
19q 10-20 MYB 6q 10 NCOA3/AIB1 20q 10 BRCA2 13q 7-10 GATA-6 18q 10 STK11 19p 5 MAP2K4/MKK4 17p 5 TGFp-RI 9q 2 TGFH-R2 3p 2 RB1 13q 5 These cancers are thought to arise from several types of precancerous lesions within the pancreas.
NGS identified genomic aberrations in AKT2
, TP53, CCNE1, MYC, MCL1, and AXL.
(Akt1: Premalignant lesions 0.06 + 0.01 and in moderately differentiated Grade II OSCC 0.12 + 0.03; Akt2
: Premalignant lesions 0.03 +0.00 and moderately differentiated Grade II OSCC 0.13 + 0.03 and Akt3: Premalignant lesions 0.02 +0.00 and moderately differentiated Grade II OSCC 0.06 + 0.01.
Mutation analysis for 443 mutations among 32 genes [ABL1, AKT1, AKT2
, APC, BRAF, CDK4, CDKN2A, CSF1R, CTNNB1, EGFR, FGFR1, FGFR3, FLT3, HRAS, JAK2, JAK3, KIT, KRAS, MET, MLH1, NRAS, P53, PDGFRA, PIK3CA, PTEN, RB1, RET, SRC, STK11, VH1] was performed by using the MassARRAY System (Sequenom, San Diego, CA) with OncoCarta Panel versions 1.0 and 3.0.
states that SHIP2 shows both prooncogenic effects and anticancer effects for SHIP2 function may differ based on interactive and imbalanced modulation by upstream stimulators including insulin, EGF, and IGF-I and downstream molecules including Akt2
, tyrosine kinase receptor, and focal adhesion adaptor proteins .
Three Akt isoforms are known, namely, Akt1, Akt2
, and Akt3.
Petersen, "Inhibition of hydrogen peroxide signaling by 4-hydroxynonenal due to differential regulation of Akt1 and Akt2
contributes to decreases in cell survival and proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells," Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol.
MYCN (v-myc myelocytomatos is viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived) contributed to tumorigenesis, in part, by repressing miR-184, leading to increased levels of the serine/threonine kinase AKT2
, a direct target of miR-184 (Foley et al.