Histologically Improves Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis.
and palmitate were purchased from Wako (Osaka, Japan).
Further, pretreatment of MSCs with the AMPK activator, AICAR
, increased AMPK phosphorylation and decreased LC3-II levels in common with that in cells treated with hinokitiol alone (Figure 6(a)).
Antemortem injection of HAT inhibitor II diminished AICAR
induced an increase in postmortem glycolysis.
Li et al., "AMPK-dependent and independent effects of AICAR
and compound C on T-cell responses," Oncotarget, vol.
(2000) Increased expression of GLUT-4 and hexokinase in rat epitrochlearis muscles exposed to AICAR
Alford, "Contrasting effects of exercise, AICAR
, and increased fatty acid supply on in vivo and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism," Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.
A close association exists between AMPK activity and exercise intolerance, as evidenced by increased exercise capacity in animals chronically treated with the AMPK activator, AICAR
(5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-[beta]-D-ribofuranoside) , and the decrease in exercise tolerance in AMPK[beta]2, AMPK[beta]1[beta]2, and AMPK[alpha]2 knockdown or knockout mice [22,24, 32].
Frangioudakis et al., "AICAR
administration causes an apparent enhancement of muscle and liver insulin action in insulin-resistant high-fat-fed rats," Diabetes, vol.
Hung et al., "Chronic treatment with the AMP-kinase activator AICAR
increases glycogen storage and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscles but does not reduce hyperglucagonemia and hyperglycemia in insulin deficient rats," PLoS ONE, vol.
induces phosphorylation of AMPK in an ATM-dependent, LKB1-independent manner.
Similarly, various AMPK agonists, including the AMPK mimetic AICAR
, block AMPK deactivation and prevent SW-induced GVBD in nemerteans, whereas co-adding cAMP elevators overrides such blockage and restores GVBD (Fig.