Earlier studies, examining passage-dependent differences to chondrogenic potential of MSCs, have produced varied results, with some studies reporting a maintenance of the chondrogenic potential of the cells up to passage 20 , or increase in COL2A1 and AGC1
expression from P4 to P9 in human adipose-derived adult stem .
QRT-PCR reactions for PDK2, SRY-related high mobility group-box 6 (Sox6), type II procollagen gene (COL2A1), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), aggrecan (AGC1), type IX procollagen gene (COL9A2), collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) were performed with RiboMAX Large Scale RNA Production System T7 (Promega, Germany).
qRT-PCR assay of MSCs showed a potent increase in the mRNA expression levels of chondrogenesis markers including Sox6, COL2A1, COMP, AGC1, COL9A2 and COL1A1 in response to overexpressing PDK2 (P<0.01 or P<0.05, Figure 3).
PDK2: pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2; sh: short hairpin; NC: negative control; Sox6: SRY-related high mobility group-box 6; COL2A1: type II procollagen gene; COMP: cartilage oligomeric matrix protein; AGC1: aggrecan; COL9A2: type IX procollagen gene; COL1A1: collagen type 1 alpha 1; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
The SLC25A12 gene is associated with neurite development, encodes the calcium-dependent mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier (AGC1) that is known be functionally important in metabolically active neurons, and has been shown to be upregulated in the autistic prefrontal cortex [14, 54].
The calcium-dependent mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier, AGC1, and the gene that encodes it (SLC25A12) are of particular interest because they link defects in calcium regulation with mitochondrial dysfunction .
Cyclic voltammo-grams were recorded using a three-electrode cell system, with a glass carbon disk as working electrode, a Pt wire as counter electrode and an silver (Ag)/silver chloride (AgC1
) electrode as the reference electrode.
The ZAg was dispersed in 0.1 M NaC1, previous to centrifugation, to obtain the zeolite modified with AgC1 (ZAgC1).
[Ag.sup.+] + [Cl.sup.-] [left and right arrow] AgC1
The photocurrent was measured on a CHI 63 OA electrochemical analyzer (Austin, TX) using a Pt flag counter electrode, Ag / AgC1
(3M KCI) reference electrode, and a bias voltage of +0.1V.
) or ionic silver ([Ag.sup.+] or other multivalent species of silver ion), the product must eventually release ionic silver to be an effective antimicrobial agent.
Bold text indicates * the presence of active sulfur contamination (as [Ag.sub.2]S) and/or inorganic chlorine compounds (as AgC1
), either of which indicate a higher corrosion potential.