However there are evidences that polymorphisms of the ADRA2B and the ADRA2A genes could be involved (Bea et al., 2010; Phares et al., 2004).
It has been reported that interactive effect of the ADRA2B Glu12/Glu9 and the ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on obesity-related phenotypes in healthy white women exist (Dionne et al., 2001).
The alpha2B adrenergic receptor encoded by ADRA2B
gene located on chromosome 2 is associated with an array of functions.
Specifically, they address a difference in NA availability among ADRA2b
polymorphisms and make a link to psychopathology by discussing possible determinants for the development of attentional biases.
The [AC.sub.50] values for amitraz for [alpha]-2A and [alpha]-2b adrenergic receptors were 0.05-1.6 [micro]M (ADRA2A, Adra2a, Adra2b
), but this was not the case for other adrenergic receptor subtypes [[alpha]-2C (ADRA2C), [beta]-1 (ADRBI), [beta]-2 (ADRB2), P-3 (ADRB3)].
Disease or Function p-Value Molecules # Mole Annotation cules Mood disorders 3.73E--04 ADRA2B
, ALOX12, AQP4, CA9, 22 CACNB2, CCKBR, CHRNA1, CHR NB4, CHRNG, DDC, ESR1, GRIA3, GRIK2, GRIN1, KCNK2, MTNR 1A, MYOM1, NCAM1, NDUFS7, PDE11A, SCN11A, SCN2B Depressive disorder 7.90E--04 ADRA2B
, AQP4, CACNB2, 14 CCKBR, CHRNA1, CHRNB4, CHRNG, ESR1, GRIA3, GRIN1, KCNK2, MYOM1, NCAM1, PDE11A Table 3 Effect of Rhodiola on genes involved in depression ([section]).
Among them, GO:0004888 dominantly contains 33 transcripts encoding signal receptors, and these receptors could be further classified into several subgroups: OXTR, LOC431251 and SSTR3 belong to reproductive hormone receptors; CHRM2, ADRA2B
, P2RX4, P2RY2, EDNRB2, GABRB2, GABRG2, LOC428961 and NPFFR2 function as receptors mediating neurotransmitters or neuropeptide; GRIN2B and GRIN3A could modulate the efficiency of synaptic transmission; NTRK1 and NTRK2 belong to the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, and are involved with neurotrophin (GO:0005030--neurotrophin receptor activity; and GO:0043121--neurotrophin binding) (Table 5).
Polymorphisms in ADRA2B
have been shown to be associated with suicidal behaviour among patients with schizophrenia.
The DD variant of the ADRA2B
gene, which mediates coronary vasoconstriction, was associated with a higher risk of sudden death in the Helsinki Sudden Death Study (16).
In humans, genotyping for a common (~50%) deletion variant of the ADRA2b
gene, which codes for alpha2b NA receptors and is thought to be associated with higher levels of intercellular NA [45, 46], provides a tractable window into the role of naturally occurring differences in NA availability on human cognitive endophenotypes.
Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction should be the crucial analgesic pathway and is regulated by 13 potential targets (OPRM1, DRD2, GABBR1, GRM1, GRM5, CHRM4, CHRM3, CHRM2, CHRM1, ADRA2A, CHRNA7, ADRA2B
, and OPRD1).
HTR2C, CHRM2, ADRA2B
, HTR6, HTR5A, ADRA2C, HTR7, DRD2, and DRD4; SLC6A4, ADRA1A, HTR1A, ADRA1B, HTR2A, and DRD1; OPRL1, CHRM5, CHRM1, ADRB1, ADRA2A, and HRH1; and CHRM4, CHRM3, KCNH2, SLC6A4, CYP2D6, SCN1A: four clusters of neuronal GPCRs (G-proteincoupled receptors: adrenergic, cholinergic, histamine, and serotonin receptors).