ADP


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

adenosine

 [ah-den´o-sēn]
1. a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar d-ribose and adenine. It is a structural subunit of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The bond between the phosphate groups in ADP or the two bonds between phosphate groups in ATP are called high-energy bonds, because hydrolysis of a high-energy bond provides a large amount of free energy that can be used to drive other processes that would not otherwise occur. The energy that is derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, or proteins is used to synthesize ATP. The energy stored in ATP is then used directly or indirectly to drive all other cellular processes that require energy, of which there are four major types: (1) the transport of molecules and ions across cell membranes against concentration gradients, which maintains the internal environment of the cell and produces the membrane potential for the conduction of nerve impulses; (2) the contraction of muscle fibers and other fibers producing the motion of cells; (3) the synthesis of chemical compounds; (4) the synthesis of other high-energy compounds.
Adenosine.
2. a preparation of adenosine, which acts as a cardiac depressant of automaticity in the sinus node and conduction in the atrioventricular node and as a vasodilator. It is used as an antiarrhythmic and is also used to cause coronary vasodilation during myocardial perfusion imaging in patients who cannot exercise adequately to perform an exercise stress test, administered intravenously.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate a cyclic nucleotide, adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate, involved in the action of many hormones, including catecholamines, ACTH, and vasopressin. The hormone binds to a specific receptor on the cell membrane of target cells. This activates an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which produces cyclic AMP from ATP. Cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger activating other enzymes within the cell. Abbreviated 3′,5′-AMP, cAMP, and cyclic AMP.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-pyrophosphate, produced by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is then converted back to ATP by the metabolic processes oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
adenosine monophosphate (AMP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-phosphate, involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Called also adenylic acid.
adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. Examples are the splitting of ATP in muscle contraction and the transport of ions across cell membranes.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleotide, adenosine 5′-triphosphate, occurring in all cells, where it stores energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds. Free energy is supplied to drive metabolic reactions, to transport molecules against concentration gradients (active transport), and to produce mechanical motion (contraction of myofibrils and microtubules), when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate or to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. ATP is also used to produce high-energy phosphorylated intermediary metabolites, such as glucose 6-phosphate.

ADP

Abbreviation for adenosine 5'-diphosphate.

ADP

(ā′dē′pē′)
n.
A nucleotide, C10H15N5O10P2, that is composed of adenosine and two linked phosphate groups, and that is converted to ATP for the storage of energy in living cells.

ADP

Abbreviation for:
adenosine diphosphate, see there 
adductor pollicis
advance planning document
after depolarising potential
Animal Disease & Parasite Research Division (of the USDA)
aortic diastolic pressure
approved drug product
assistant director of pathology (Medspeak-UK)
Association for Disabled Professionals
automatic data processing, see there (Medspeak-UK)

ADP

Abbreviation for adenosine 5'-diphosphate.

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate. See ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE.
Fig. 15 ADP. General structure of ADP and ATP. P = phosphate group.click for a larger image
Fig. 15 ADP . General structure of ADP and ATP. P = phosphate group.

ADP (adenosine diphosphate)

a molecule consisting of an ADENOSINE unit on to which are attached two phosphate groups, which are joined by a high-energy bond. ADP can be converted to ATP by the addition of inorganic phosphate and about 34 kJ energy. See Fig. 15 . See ATP for molecular structure.
References in periodicals archive ?
With the launch of ADP Vantage HCM, ADP is mobilizing its resources to help clients who want to simplify and consolidate HR systems/services across their enterprise to achieve a lower cost and more efficient HR function.
Since it's a university publication, the ADP blog has needed a policy about the strong language and aggressive tone found on some political blogs.
Section 7.02 of the procedure states that "[a]n ADP system must not be subject, in whole or in part, to any agreement (such as a contract or license) that would limit or restrict the IRS's access to and use of the ADP system on the taxpayer's premises (or any other place where the ADP system is maintained...." This requirement seemingly conflicts with section 4.02, which does not require that a program or system that creates data be available to process the data unless one of two conditions set forth in section 4.02 are met.
"ADP AutoConnect is the link for everything automotive on the Internet," said James G.
This process inputs ADP customers' payroll information into ADP's system and can output client reports, check registers and other pertinent payroll data when the client dials in for the information.
"ADP RPO has developed a strong presence in the North American RPO market across buyers of all sizes," said Arko Basak, vice president at Everest Group.
'Instead of making fresh allocations for new sectors in the ADP, the secretariat slashed funds from other sectors by scrapping schemes,' he added.
The official said the NEC earlier approved a Taka 1,53,331.25 crore ADP for the current fiscal year with Taka 96,331.25 crore coming from the domestic resources while Taka 57,000 crore from the foreign resources.
ADP Marketplace is a cloud-based "one-stop-shop" designed to help employers to dynamically manage an ecosystem of enterprise applications from ADP and world-class partners.
The acquisition of a percentage of ADP is Pershing Square's largest investment.
M2 EQUITYBITES-August 8, 2017-Pershing Square Acquires Minority Stake in HR Software Firm ADP
ADP (NASDAQ: ADP) said the company's board of directors has approved a plan to separate the dealer services business into an independent publicly traded company through a tax-free spin-off of 100 percent of dealer services to ADP shareholders.