ACVR2A


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ACVR2A

A gene on chromosome 2q22.3 that encodes activin receptor type IIA, a receptor that forms a complex with other type-I and two type-II  transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors for activin, a dimeric growth and differentiating factor belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily of structurally related signalling proteins. Type-I receptors are essential for signalling; type-II receptors are required for binding ligands and expression of type-I receptors. After activin binding, type-I receptors phosphorylate cytoplasmic SMAD transcription factors, which then translocate to the nucleus and interact directly with DNA or in complex with other transcription factors, playing roles in cell differentiation, growth arrest and apoptosis.
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For example, miR-335 could regulate 7 genes, namely, DCN, FST, THBS1, RBL1, ACVR2A, LTBP1, and BMPR2, while THBS1 was also regulated by miR-708, where the two miRNAs had different regulated directions in DFs (Figure 5).
miRNA ID Target genes miR-26a TAB2, NLK, MEF2C, PAK1 miR-10b MAX, MEF2C, RAP1A let-7a-5p FLNA, NGF, FAS, MEF2C, CASP3, RASGRP1 let-7f FLNA, NGF, FAS, MEF2C, CASP3, RASGRP1 let-7i FLNA, NGF, FAS, MEF2C, CASP3, RASGRP1 miR-27b EGFR, TAB2, NLK, NF1, FAS, STMN1, MEF2C, GRB2 miR-191 BDNF Table 4: Target genes regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs in TGF-[beta] signaling pathway miRNA ID Target genes miR-708 THBS1 miR-21-3p TGIF1, SP1 miR-409a PITX2, BMPR2 miR-335 DCN, FST, THBS1, RBL1, ACVR2A, LTBP1, BMPR2 miR-224 SMAD4, LTBP1, BMPR2 miR-214 CHRD, ACVR2A Table 5: The top 5 GO terms enriched by the pivotal miRNAs.
ActA binds to type II receptor, ACVR2A or ACVR2B, leading to oligomerization, which recruits and phosphorylates the activin type I receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4, or also known as ACVR1B) (reviewed in [26]).