Oudit, "Role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2
) in diabetic cardiovascular complications," Clinical Science, vol.
Several components of the renin-angiotensin system, including angiotensin (ANG), angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2
, and angiotensin II receptor type 1 and type 2 (AGTR1 and AGTR2), are shown in the subnetwork (Figure 3(d)).
White AT cells, particularly white AT adipocytes, are capable of expressing all the RAAS components: angio-tensinogen, renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2), as well as the components of the nonclassical pathway including ACE2
and MAS receptors for angiotensin (1-7).
Recently, a homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), namely, ACE2
has been identified .
It does not appear to be associated with or dependent on the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2
) and angiotensin (1-7) (Ang(1-7)) axis , and despite known renal actions of AngII given at higher doses, we have repeatedly reported no chronic changes in sodium or water balance using this model of hypertension [17, 19, 21].
In high-dose STZ model, renal expression of RAS components was changed in a similar manner in STZ eNOS -/- and eNOS +/+ mice compared with nondiabetic counterparts as follows: (upregulated) angiotensinogen mRNA, ACE2
, AT1 receptor, and MCR proteins, (downregulated) renin mRNA, and (unaltered) ACE protein.
Ability to efficiently use the receptor molecules (ACE2
for human and civet) seems to be a major limiting factor for animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission (35).
Ang-(1-7) is synthesized directly from Ang II or indirectly from Ang I by an ACE homolog enzyme (ACE2
), which in turn binds into the Mas receptor [109, 110].
The S1 subunit is responsible for virus binding to the receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2
The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) converts Ang I to Ang II, whereas the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2
) metabolizes Ang II and generates Ang-(1-7) .
To make the quail QT6/ACE2 cell line, the gene encoding the receptor for SARS-CoV, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2
) (35), was cloned from a human primary kidney cDNA library (Invitrogen, Paisley, Scotland, UK) using 21-mer primers designed to the start and stop of ACE2
, and subcloned into pcdna3.1+.