ABO incompatibility


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Related to ABO incompatibility: Coombs test

ABO Incompatibility

A type of blood incompatibility in which recipients—e.g., those with genotypes AO, BO, OO—of donated blood products, usually understood to mean packed red cells, have antibodies to antigens A or B on the surface of red cells being transfused.

ABO incompatibility

Transfusion medicine A type of blood incompatibility, in which certain recipients–eg genotypes AO, BO, OO of donated blood products-usually understood to mean packed RBCs, has antibodies to antigens–A or B on the surface of RBCs being transfused. See ABO system.

ABO incompatibility

An antigen-antibody immune response to infusion of another's red blood cells. Transfusion reactions occur most commonly in people with type O blood, which carries no antigens on the red blood cells and contains both anti-A and anti-B antibodies. People with type A blood carry A antigens on their red cells and anti-B antibodies; those with type B blood carry B antigens and anti-A antibodies; those with type AB blood carry both A and B antigens but no antibodies to A or B. The antibodies are called natural antibodies because their formation does not require sensitization by A and B antigens. The antibodies recognize the antigens on the donor cells as foreign and destroy them by agglutination and lysis. ABO incompatibilities are different from Rh incompatibilities, which are most commonly related to the D antigen in the Rh blood group. See: table; blood group

Obstetrics: Transplacental fetal-maternal transfusion occurs when fetal blood cells escape into the maternal circulation, eliciting antibody formation. Maternal antibodies then cross the placenta into the fetal circulation, attack, and destroy red blood cells, as evidenced by neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice.

See also: incompatibility
References in periodicals archive ?
An early (sixth-hour) serum bilirubin measurement is useful in predicting the development of significant hyperbilirubinemia and severe ABO hemolytic disease in a selective high-risk population of newborns with ABO incompatibility. Pediatrics 2002;109(4):e53.
The culprit antibodies are either naturally occurring (anti A, anti B) or immune mediated antibodies resulting from sensitizations after transfusion or pregnancy.12 There are over 60 RBC antigens that are responsible for an antigen antibody response, but the Rh group with its D antigen and ABO incompatibility remains the most significant cause of hemolysis in neonates.
Impact of ABO incompatibility on outcome after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
In the setting of hemolysis due to ABO incompatibility, researchers postulate that IVIG may block the maternal antibodies circulating in the baby's bloodstream from destroying the baby's RBCs, halting the progression of hemolytic anemia [16].
Two studies that looked specifically at the automatic testing approach concluded that there are no appropriate screening tests capable of selecting those ABO incompatible infants who will have hemolytic disease severe enough to require treatment.[4,5] It was concluded that screening for hemolytic disease due to ABO incompatibility was not cost-effective,[4] and the importance of clinical observation of the newborn was emphasized.[5] However, neither study compared the outcomes of infants tested automatically with those tested selectively.
Table-1: Total Live births and neonates treated for Year Live Births Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia 2012 2611 364 2013 2978 389 Total 5589 753 Table-2: Factors associated with unconjugated neonatal hyperbilirubinemia Factors Associated Number Percentage Gender Male 403 53.5 Female 350 46.5 Gestational Age Term 506 67.1 Preterm 247 32.9 Birth Weight Low Birth Weight 105 13.9 Very Low Birth Weight 70 9.3 Extremely Low 35 4.6 Birth Weight Parity Primi 490 65.1 Multi 263 34.9 Mode of Caesarean Section 333 44.2% Delivery Normal Vaginal Delivery 420 55.8% Figure-1: Causes of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia Sepsis 87 Cephalohematoma 35 ABO incompatibility 318 Rh Incompatibility 71 Unknown 245 Note: Table made from pie chart.
[Efficacy of intensive blue double-lamp phototherapy in the treatment of ABO incompatibility and idiopathic severe hemolytic jaundice].
The incidence of ABO incompatibility was 13.79% and of Rh incompatibility was 1.37%.
In our study, it was observed that ABO incompatibility in 108 neonates (20.76%) was comparable to Joshi et al 2004.
Causes identified by laboratory investigations include Rh and ABO incompatibility, as well as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
The prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the present series was (5.71%) ABO incompatibility was (1.43%) and Rh incompatibility was (5.71%).