9-cis-retinoic acid

9-cis-retinoic acid

AIDS A retinoid that may have some efficacy in topical management of KS Adverse effects Skin irritation, photosensitivity. See AIDSALRT 1057.
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Molecular mechanism of 9-cis-retinoic acid inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.
Combination treatment with 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 9-cis-retinoic acid directly inhibits human telomerase reverse transcriptase transcription in prostate cancer cells.
Bollag and Ott had originally shown the effectiveness of 9-cis-retinoic acid as a treatment [1], and results of an extensive trial were published in 2004 [2].
All-trans retinoic acid (RA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) are activators of Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs).
3] receptor (VDR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and FXR, in addition to functioning as a receptor for 9-cis-retinoic acid (9CRA) during formation of a homodimer.
Generally, TRs form heterodimers with the 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor and interact with comodulator complexes, thereby repressing or activating transcription.
The RXR-selective retinoids have a biological activity that is different from that of the endogenous retinoid 9-cis-retinoic acid (alitretinoin), the active substance in Panretin(R) gel and capsules.
Agent Phase Target(s) Retinoids Vitamin A 3 Cervix, lung 13-cis-Retinoic acid 2/3 Head and neck, lung, oral cavity 4-HPR 2/3 Bladder, breast, cervix, lung, oral cavity, prostate 9-cis-Retinoic acid 2 Cervix Calcium 2/3 Colon Tamoxifen 2/3 Breast Aromatase inhibitor 2 Breast Finasteride 3 Prostate 2-Difluoromethylomithine 2 Bladder, breast, cervix, esophagus, oral cavity, prostate Aspirin 2/3 Colon, other epithelial cancers (breast, lung) Perillyl alcohol 2 Breast Piroxicam 2 Colon Cox-2 inhibitor 2 Colon Sulindac 2/3 Colon Oltipraz 2 Liver (DNA adducts), breast, lung Dehydroepiandrosterone analog 2 Breast, prostate IuAcetylcysteine 3 Lung Vitamin [D.
The most significant finding in recent years, I think, is the discovery that the retinoid receptor called 'RXR', or the rexinoid receptor, which binds the derivative 9-cis-retinoic acid and has multiple functions acting in concert (as a heterodimer) with a whole range of other hormone-type receptors in the cell.
More precisely, the metabolic perturbation induced by environmental stimuli leads to the activation of a class of proteins belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) [17], which, by forming heterodimers with the 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor X (RXR), recognize response elements (RE) of the promoter region of the above-mentioned target genes and, hence, control their expression.
The discovery of 9-cis-retinoic acid represented the first non-peptide hormone discovery in more than 25 years.