suppresses inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes.
Molecular mechanism of 9-cis-retinoic acid
inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.
Drew, "9-Cis-retinoic acid
suppresses inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes," Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.
Other treatments include local destruction (cryotherapy), topical alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid
), intralesional interferon or vinblastine, superficial radiotherapy, liposomal doxorubicin, daunorubicin, or paclitaxel.
The transcription of RXRs is activated by endogenous 9-cis-retinoic acid
, which is a vitamin A derivative for regulation of growth and morphogenesis [18-21].
Combination treatment with 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 9-cis-retinoic acid
directly inhibits human telomerase reverse transcriptase transcription in prostate cancer cells.
Binding of 9-cis-retinoic acid
and all-trans-retinoic acid to retinoic acid receptors alpha, beta, and gamma.
Efficacy and safety of oral alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid
) in patients with severe chronic hand eczema refractory to topical corticosteroids: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial Ruzicka T, Lynde CW, Jemec GB et al.
All-trans retinoic acid (RA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid
(9cRA) are activators of Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs).
The retinoid X receptor (RXR) is a common heterodimeric partner for many receptors, including thyroid hormone receptor (TR), RAR, vitamin [D.sub.3] receptor (VDR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and FXR, in addition to functioning as a receptor for 9-cis-retinoic acid
(9CRA) during formation of a homodimer.
Generally, TRs form heterodimers with the 9-cis-retinoic acid
receptor and interact with comodulator complexes, thereby repressing or activating transcription.
The RXR-selective retinoids have a biological activity that is different from that of the endogenous retinoid 9-cis-retinoic acid
(alitretinoin), the active substance in Panretin(R) gel and capsules.