The inhibitory and down-regulatory effects of curcumin on tumor biology-associated molecules, such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-[kappa]B), Akt, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipooxygenase
, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), were also demonstrated in different studies (7, 8).
Likewise Schiff bases that have the ability to inhibit the production of both isozymes cyclooxygenase and 5-lipooxygenase
are widely explored as potent pain-killer and anti-inflammatory drugs in comparison to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Almasirad et al., 2005).
It has been shown to inhibit the pro-inflammatory enzyme 5-lipooxygenase
de Lima et al., "Relative contribution of acetylated cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 and 5-lipooxygenase
(LOX) in regulating gastric mucosal integrity and adaptation to aspirin," The FASEB Journal, vol.
They are reported to inhibit both cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipooxygenase
(LOX) pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism.
Adiponectin, known to increase insulin sensitivity, acts through small GTPase Rac1 activation and 5-lipooxygenase
Such modification promotes the synthesis of the 15-R-HETE intermediate, which can be transformed by 5-lipooxygenase
to 15epi-LXA4, a lipid involved in the resolution of inflammation .
Selectivity of neutrophil 5-lipooxygenase
and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor by an anti-inflammatory flavonoid glycoside and related aglycone flavonoids.
Alternatively, Mk may act inhibiting the synthesis and/or the effect of LTB4 as recently suggested by the demonstration that antagonist of LT receptors are alosteric inhibitors of the 5-lipooxygenase
In addition, prostaglandins synthesis by NSAIDs is also associated with an increased production of leukotrienes by 5-Lipooxygenase
. Since the COX isoenzymes and 5-LOX share the same substrate (arachidonic acid), the COX pathway can lead to a shift towards a reduction of leukotrienes by 5-LOX due to increased substrate availability.
Polymorphisms in the gene for 5-lipooxygenase
activating protein were recently reported to be associated with stroke risk (17,18), but because we began our study before this genetic variant was identified, analysis of this SNP is not included.
There are other mechanisms involved in the evolution of a prostate tumor such as 5-lipooxygenase
(5-LOX) (53-55) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (56) that can be markedly improved by dietary changes, along with curcumin, (57), (58) fish oil,59-61 boswellia,62 aspirin,63 Zyflamend[R],64-68 and prescription COX-2 inhibitors like Celebrex[R].