5-azacytidine

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5-azacytidine

A chemical analogue of the nucleoside cytidine which cells incorporate into DNA during replication and RNA during transcription; it inhibits methyltransferase resulting in demethylation of the sequence, affecting the binding of cell regulatory proteins to the DNA/RNA substrate. It is used to manage myelodysplastic syndromes.
 
Adverse effects
Anaemia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, decreased blood pressure, liver defects, pulmonary oedema.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Myogenic cells derived from rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells exposed to 5-azacytidine. Muscle Nerve.
Molecular changes associated with oral dysplasia progression and acquisition of immortality: potential for its reversal by 5-azacytidine. Cancer Res 2002; 62(16):4757-4766.
(11) Transdifferentiation can also be achieved by the administration of some chemicals, as has been shown by studies that report the transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes by exposure to 5-Azacytidine. (6,12) Although the reprogrammed cells are known to have expressed cardiomyocyte markers, they are not functional in vitro.
A total of 3 patients (3 male) were treated after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with 5-Azacytidine. The median age was 60 years (range 57-63 years).
Induction of Regulatory T-Cells by 5-Azacytidine. Expression of the main regulatory T-cell transcription factor FOXP3 is strongly regulated by DNA methylation [16, 17].
MSCs were cultured in 4-well chamber slides (Nunc, USA) in complete medium for 24 h under one of the Following conditions: no 5-azacytidine, 5 [micro]M 5-azacytidine, 10 [micro]M 5-azacytidine, or 15 [micro]M 5-azacytidine. After this period, the medium was changed to complete growth medium and maintained for 7 days.
The morphological changes over time were observed; these did not differ for various doses of the 5-azacytidine. Both treated and untreated MSCs displayed spindle-shaped appearances.
Multiple new phenotypes induced in 10T1/2 and 3T3 cells treated with 5-azacytidine. Cell 1979;17:771-779.
As an independent assay of DNA methylation, Histoplasma capsulatum (Downs strain) was grown in the presence of the cytosine analogue, 5-Azacytidine. Furthermore, DNA methylation will be quantitatively analyzed using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Rhabdomyolysis as a complication of 5-azacytidine. Cancer Treat Rep.
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