COX pathways consist of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), while 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX
), 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), and 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) are the examples of the LOX pathway.
Deoxyhypusine Hydroxylase from Plasmodium vivax, the Neglected Human Malaria Parasite: Molecular Cloning, Expression and Specific Inhibition by the 5-LOX
By inhibiting both COX-2 and 5-LOX
pathways, licofelone decreased the production of inflammatory chemicals like leukotrienes and prostaglandins (Gracia-Alvaro, 2004; Khurdayan and Matito, 2007).
Biologically active oxylipins are synthesized from these precursors primarily through the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (5-LOX
and 12/15-LOX), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymatic pathways.
Growing evidence indicates that cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), a group of highly active lipid mediators, synthetized from arachidonic acid via the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX
) pathway, play a pivotal role in both physiological and pathological conditions.
When COX-2 is acetylated by aspirin, interaction with 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX
) occurs that triggers the transcellular biosynthesis of 15R epimers of lipoxins [29, 38].
The authors reported that isoorientin inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-kB induced by LPS, cylooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] (TNF-[alpha]), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX
), and interleukin-1-[beta] (IL-1-[beta]) and induced glutathione S-transferase and catalase.
Furthermore, MIA-induced increases in the serum levels of LTB4 and 5-LOX
were significantly inhibited by LJF-HE (Figures 5(d) and 5(e)).
Boswellia serrata strongly inhibits 5-LOX
pathway, another inflammatory pathway causing brain tumor growth and brain edema, in patients with glioblastoma.
Moreover, the plant extract blocked leukotriene LTB4 release, the major end product of the 5-LOX
pathway from PBMC.
The root of Zingiber officinale (ginger) has previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of COX-2, NF-[kappa]B and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX
In each of these conditions, inflammation of the bowel lining is kept alive largely through excessive production of inflammatory mediators called leukotrienes, which are produced by the 5-LOX