This relation between the increase of EO concentration and the decrease of anaesthesia induction period was also observed in the fat snook Centropomus parallelus anaesthetized with eugenol, menthol and benzocaine (Souza et al., 2012), in sole Solea senegalensis anaesthetized with 2-phenoxyethanol
, metomidate, clove oil and MS-222 (Weber et al., 2009) and in grouper Epinephelus bruneus using clove oil (Park et al., 2008).
Clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris, Swordfish (Xiphophorus helleri), Anaesthesia, Clove oil, 2-phenoxyethanol
At the end of the feeding experiment, the fish were carefully handled to minimize stress, anesthetized with 0.3 mL [L.sup.-1] of 2-phenoxyethanol
, and in less than 3 min, blood samples were collected from the caudal vein using 1 mL non-anticoagulant insulin syringes 21 G x 32 mm (Terumo Mexico, DF, Mexico).
Also, three fish per tank (nine fish per dietary treatment) were randomly captured, anaesthetized with 2-phenoxyethanol
solution (200 mg/L) and blood samples were taken from the caudal vein with heparinized syringes to determine respiratory burst activity and total immunoglobin level.
It was 30 years after the original discovery before 2-phenoxyethanol
(PE) was isolated from Papermate brand pen ink and shown to elicit trail following (Chen et al., 1998).
At each catheterization, fish were weakly anesthetized with 0.08% 2-phenoxyethanol
sea water for 30-120 seconds until fish did not beat their tails when they were turned over in the water.
In comparison with 2-phenoxyethanol
, clove oil was effective in 10-fold lower doses.
After 96 hours, the surviving catfish were sacrificed after using 0.1% 2-Phenoxyethanol
The formulation contains 0.5% 2-phenoxyethanol
as a preservative.