Enzymes involved in energy production (malate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase
complex component E2) were also found to be significantly upregulated in HRPs.
vannamei FE123204.1 - Fumarase No record - - 2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase
Whereas activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDH) are stimulated directly by the [Mg.sup.2+]-isocitrate complex  and free [Mg.sup.2+] , respectively, the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) is stimulated indirectly via the stimulatory effect of [Mg.sup.2+] on pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, which dephosphorylates and thus activates the pyruvate decarboxylase of PDH .
Mitochondrial [Mg.sup.2+] activates ( >) three dehydrogenases in the mitochondrial matrix: pyruvate dehydrogenase (conversion of mitochondrial pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A), isocitrate dehydrogenase (conversion of isocitrate to 2-oxoglutarate), and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A).
"They concluded that cyanobacteria lacked the ability to make one enzyme, called 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and that this missing enzyme rendered the bacteria unable to produce a compound -- called succinyl-coenzyme A -- for the next step in the TCA cycle.
"That is, rather than making 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, these bacteria produce both 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase.
Incubation 8 yielded only 1 mole of [sup.14]C[O.sub.2] because 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (2-ODHc) is inhibited by arsenite, giving a incubation 7/incubation 8 ratio of ~2 (Table 1).
 Nonstandard abbreviations: MEGS, mitochondrial energy-generating system; PDHc, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; TCA, tricarboxylic acid; OXPHOS, oxidative phosphorylation; RC, respiratory chain; ANT, adenine nucleotide translocator; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA; CCCP, carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenyl hydrazone; CS, citrate synthase; SDH, succinate dehydrogenase; CrP, phosphocreatine; 2-ODHc, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex; and SCC, succinate cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex II + III).
As shown in Table 2, diabetes caused increases in the activities of glucose-o-phosphate dehydrogenase (17%) carnitine acetyltransferase (21%), 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (37%), and fatty acid synthetase (62%), but we found no significant changes in citrate synthase activity (Table 2).
Cooperation of Ca and pH in regulation of the activity of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and its components from bovine kidney cortex.