-ize


Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.

-ize

[Fr. -iser, fr L. -izare, fr Gr. i-izein]
Suffix for forming verbs from adjectives or nouns, e.g., sterilize from the adjective sterile or terrorize from the noun terror.
References in periodicals archive ?
Of those 303, 131 are forms with a base in zero-derivation, followed by 115 forms with their bases in -ize and 57 forms with other affixes.
A comparison of the total number of forms in -ize and zero-derivation (whether attested only in the OED or both in the OED and the COCA) shows that the two affixes follow opposite patterns.
i) apparently, the suffix -ize has gradually replaced zero-derivation for the expression of CAUSATIVE in the clusters analyzed while zero-derivation seems to be more frequent in the expression of INSTRUMENT and MANNER, and
The rest of this section is divided as follows: [section]4.2 describes the increasing preference observed for the suffix -ize over zero-derivation.
Research into the competition between the suffix -ize and zero-derivation over time showed that the introduction of the former led to losses in the use of zero-derivation for the expression of CAUSATIVE (Fernandez-Alcaina 2017), which is especially marked from the 17th century onwards.
Since the introduction of the suffix -ize in the 16th century, its use has gradually increased until the 19th century.
However, is this enough evidence to conclude that the -ize suffix wins out over zero-derivation?
A comparison of the patterns followed by verbs in -ize (Figure 3) and zero-derivation (Figure 4) in previous research and in this paper shows again that the 17th century is a turning point in the competition between the two forms.
The members of the subparadigms where the competing forms serve as bases also provide information regarding the outcomes of the diachronic competition between -ize and zero-derivation.
Of the 13 clusters that have changed their status from an ongoing to resolved competition, in seven of them the suffix -ize is preferred over zero-derivation for the expression of CAUSATIVE, while only in three clusters zero-derivation wins out over the suffix -ize.
In the first two profiles, the -ize form is the preferred option to express the CAUSATIVE meaning.
In these clusters only the -ize form has derivatives that convey the sense 'make X'.